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ECE 3151 - Spring 2010

Introduction to Control Systems


Prof. Marian S. Stachowicz Laboratory for Intelligent Systems ECE Department, University of Minnesota Duluth

January 19 - 21, 2010

Outline
1.1 Introduction 1.2 References for Reading 1.3 History of Automatic Control 1.4 Terms and Concepts 1.5 The Control System Design Process 1.6 Applications 1.7 Three Examples of the Use of Feedback
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Introduction

Control
The word control is usually taken to mean : - regulate,
- direct, - command.
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Control and politicians


Control is a sequence of decisions aimed at the attainment of specified objectives in an environment of uncertainty and presence of disturbances.

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Control system
A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a manner as to command, direct, or regulate itself or another system.

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Input
The input is the stimulus, excitation or command applied to a control system.
Typically from external energy source, usually in order to produce a specified response from the control system.

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Output
The output is the actual response obtained from a control system.
It may or may not be equal to specified response implied by the input.

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References for reading


1. R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2008,
Chapter 1.1 - 1.10

2.

J.J. DiStefano, A. R. Stubberud, I. J. Williams, Feeedback and Control Systems, Schaum's Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1990
Chapters 1, 2

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History of Automatic Control

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Prior to World War II


A main impetus for the use of feedback in the United States was the development of the telephone system and electronic feedback amplifiers by Bode, Nyquist, and Black at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

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Prior to World War II


The Russian theory tended to utilize a time-domain formulation using differential equations.

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World War II
Design and construct: automatic airplane pilots, gun-positioning systems, radar antenna control systems.

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Sputnik and space age


The time-domain methods developed by Liapunov, Minorsky, and others have met with great interest in the last two decades.

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Resent time
Recent theories of optimal control developed by L.S. Pontryagin in the former Soviet Union and R. Bellman in the United States, and studies of robust systems, have contributed to the interest in time-domain methods.

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Terms and Concepts

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Control system
A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.

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Two Types of Control Systems


Open Loop
No feedback Difficult to control output with accuracy

Closed Loop
Must have feedback Must have sensor on output Almost always negative feedback

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Open-loop control
An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the process directly without using feedback.
A common example of an open-loop control system is an electric toaster in the kitchen.

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Closed-loop control

A closed-loop control system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the desired output.

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A person steering an automobile by looking at the autos location on the road and making the appropriate adjustments.

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Manual control system

Goal: Regulate the level of fluid by adjusting the output valve. The input is a reference level of fluid and is memorized by operator. The power amplifier is the operator. The sensor is visual. Operator compares the actual level with the desired level and opens or closes the valve ( actuator).
Intelligent Control 26

The level of fluid in a tank control.

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27

Multivariable control system

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Control system of the national income.

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A robot is a computer-controlled machine.

Industrial robotics is a particular field of automation in which the robot is designed to substitute for human labor.

The Honda P3 humanoid robot.


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Automation - The control of a process by automatic means.


Closed-loop feedback control system A system that uses a measurement of the output and compares it with the desired output.

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Design-The process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts, and details of a system to achieve a specified purpose. Feedback signal - A measure of the output of the system used for feedback to control the system. Multivariable control system - A system with more than one input variable or more than one output variable.
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Negative feedback -The output signal is fed back so that it subtracts from the input signal.
Open-loop control system - A system that utilizes a device to control the process without using feedback.

Optimization -The adjustment of the parameters to achieve the most favorable or advantageous design.
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Positive feedback -The output signal is fed back so that it adds to the input signal.
Process -The device, plant, or system under control. Productivity -The ratio of physical output to physical input of an industrial process.

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Robot - Programmable computers integrated with a manipulator. Synthesis - The combining of separate elements or devices to form a coherent whole. System - An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose.
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The Control System Design Process

Engineering design
Design is the process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts, and details of a system to achieve a specified purpose.

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Engineering design

Trade-off The result of making a judgment about how to compromise between conflicting criteria.

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Control system engineers are concerned with understanding and controlling segments of their environment, often called systems, to provide useful economic products.

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Goals
Twin goals of understanding and controlling are complementary because effective systems control requires that the systems be understood and modeled.

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Control engineering
Control engineering is based on the foundations of feedback theory and linear system analysis, and it integrates the concepts of network theory and communication theory.

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Given a process, how to design a feedback control system?


Three steps:
Modeling. Obtain mathematical description of the systems.

Analysis. Analyze the properties of the system.


Design. Given a plant, design a controller based on performance specifications. The course spans each of these steps in that sequence.
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The basis for analysis of a system is the foundation provided by linear system theory, which assumes a cause-effect relationship for the components of a system.

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Design examples

Rotating disk speed control

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Step 1. Control goal

Design a system that will held a rotating disk at a constant speed. Ensure that the actual speed of rotation is within a specified percentage of desired speed.

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Step 2. Variable to be controlled

Speed of rotation disc

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Step 3. Control design specification

Design a system that will ensure that the actual speed of rotation is within a specified percentage of desired speed.

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Step 4 Preliminary system configuration

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Step 4 Preliminary system configuration

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With precision components, we could expect to reduce the error of the feedback system to one-hundredth of error of the open-loop system.

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Insulin delivery system

The blood glucose and insulin concentrations for a healthy person.


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Step 1. Control goal

Design a system to regulate the blood sugar concentration of a diabetic by controlled dispensing of insulin.

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Step 2. Variable to be controlled

Blood glucose concentration

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Step 3. Control design specification

Provide a blood glucose level for the diabetic that closely approximates the glucose level of a healthy person.

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Step 4 Preliminary system configurations

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A drug-delivery system implanted in the body


uses an open-loop system, since miniaturized glucose sensors are not yet available.

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Disk drive read system

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Step 1. Control goal

Design a system that will held the position the reader head to read the data stored on a track on the disk.

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Step 2. Variable to be controlled

Position of the reader head

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Step 3. Control design specification

Design a system that will ensure that the head : - flies above the disk at a distance of less than 100 nm, - with the position accuracy is 1 m, - with speed from track to track 50 ms
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Step 4 Preliminary system configuration

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E 1: Controlling the position of a missile launcher from a remote location


The input is the desired angular position of the missile launcher, The control system consists: of potentiometer, power amplifier, motor, gearing between the motor and the missile launcher, missile launcher.
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A position open loop control

The input is the desired angular position of the missile launcher, and the control system consists of potentiometer, power amplifier, motor, gearing between the motor and missile launcher, and missile launcher.
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A position closed loop control

Should an error exists, it is amplified and applied to a motor drive which adjusts the output-shaft position until it agrees with the input-shaft position, and the error is zero.
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P1.2 Manual control system

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Fluid-flow control
P1.2 In the past, control systems used a human operator as part of a closed-loop control system. Sketch the block diagram of the valve control system shown in Fig. P1.2

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P1.3 Chemical composition control


Complete the control feedback loop, and sketch a block diagram describing the operation of the control loop.

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P1.8 Student-teacher learning process


Construct a feedback model of the learning process and identify each block of the system.

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Inverted pendulum control


E1.11 Sketch the block diagram of a feedback control system. Identify the process, sensor, actuator, and controller. The objective is keep the pendulum in the upright position ( = 0), in the presence of disturbances.

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Applications
Control engineering is not limited to any engineering discipline but is equally applicable to: aeronautical, chemical, mechanical, computer science and engineering , civil engineering, electrical engineering.
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Mechatronic systems

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Questions ?

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The design of control systems is a specific example of engineering design. The goal of control engineering design is to obtain the configuration, specifications, and identification of the key parameters of a proposed system to meet an actual need.

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The design process consists of seven main building blocks, which are arrange into three groups: 1.Establishment of goals and variables to be controlled, and definition of specifications against which to measure performance 2.System definition and modeling 3.Control system design and integrated system simulation and analysis
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Design 1

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Design 2

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Design 3

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Open-loop and closed-loop systems