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Pragmatics explore questions such as: How do people communicate more than what the words or phrases of their

r utterances might mean by themselves, and how do people make these interpretations? Why do peolpe choose to say and/or interpret something in one way rather than in another? How do peoples perceptions of contextual factors influence the process of producing and interpreting language?

Pragmatic meaning Pragmatics is concerned with the study of the meaning that linguistics expressions receive in use. So one task of pragmatics is to explain how participants in a dialogue grasp the meaning by context.

Assigning reference in context The process of assignning reference involves the interpretation of deitic expressions. These are linguistic terms that point to contextually salien referents without naming them explicitly.

Assigning sense inc ontext Sometimes the process of identifying pragmatic meaning involves interpreting ambiguos and vague linguistic expressions in order to assign them sense in context.

Inferring illocutionary force People do not simply make statements that can be judged as true or false rather, they use language to perform actions that have an impact in some way on the world.

Working out implicated meaning The main import of an utterance may, in fact, easily lie not with thought expressed by the utterance but rather with the thoughts that the hearer assumes the speaker intends to suggest or hint at.

The cooperative principal

Truthfullness Informativeness Relevance Style

Implication for language teaching and use When designing language teaching materials and language learning activities, it is vital to clearly identify relevant contextual information such as the following: The roles The number of people present The setting Event and goals

Corpus linguistics uses large collection of both spoken an written natural texts that are stored on computers. By using a variety of computers-based tools, corpus linguistics can explore different questions about language use.

There are typically four features that are seen as characteristics of corpus-based analyses of language: It is empirical , analysin the actual patterns in antural texts. It utilizes a large and principal collection of natural texts known as a cospus as the basis for analysis. It makes a extensive use of computers for analysis, using both automatic and interactive techniques. It depends on both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques.

There are a number of existing corpora that are valuable resources for investigating some types of language questions. Some of the more well-known available corpora include the British National Corpus, the Brown corpus, etc.f

Types of corpora

It could be said that there are as many types of corpora as there are research topics in linguistics. Commonly, there are two kinds of corpora, the first one is the general corpora and the second one i known as specialized corpora.

How can corpora inform Language Teaching? The avaiability of tools exploring corpora is a considerable benefit to the language classroom. Corpus based studies is a considerable benefit to the language classroom.

Corpus-based studies of particulas language features asn comprenhensive works such as The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English will also serve language teachers well by providing a basis for decidin which language features and structure are important and also how various features and structures are used.

Bringing corpora into the language classroom Teachers can shape instructions based on corpus-based information. They can consult corpus studies to gain information about the features that they are teaching. Cospus information can be brought into the language classroom is having learners interact with corpora.