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Monitoring Gaseous Pollutants

Wet Chemical Methods Ozone

ECRD Publications

Measurement of Gaseous Pollutants


Choices for Wet Chemical Methods
Pollutants that can be easily monitored: SO2 West & Gaeke method Nox Sodium-Arsenite method NH3 Indophenol blue method Ozone Choices of hardware: APM411 Attachment with RDS APM411TE Attachment with RDS APM433 Independent Gaseous Sampler

ECRD Publications

Measurement of Gaseous Pollutants


The new APM 411TE Gaseous Sampling Attachment
Thermoelectric Coolers keep the impingers at a cool 15C even when ambient temperature reaches 40C Built-in thermostat avoids absorbing reagent freezing in winter nights. Modified Flow Control Needle Valve Assembly and filter dryer tubes maintain pre-set sampling rate. Dryer tubes have indicating bluesilica gel and can be re-used after a suitable bake. Impingers conform to BIS

ECRD Publications

APM 433 Gaseous Sampler


Specially tailored for Wet Chemical Methods
Hardware Included to Facilitate Stand Alone Operation: Diaphragm Pump Timer Time Totalizer Important Changes: Pump provides enough suction pressure to allow use of fritted impinger needed for NOx One Impinger with Fritted-disc provided with each unit. Impinger designed for Ozone monitoring provided as an Optional Accessory

ECRD Publications

UV ABSORPTION METHOD for Measurement of Ozone


Ozone is continuously measured by ultraviolet absorption photometry. In the ultraviolet analyzer, a mercury vapor lamp is used to produce ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm which is absorbed by the ozone in the air sample. The ozone signal is determined by the difference between ambient air containing ozone and ambient air with the ozone removed or scrubbed. The ultraviolet analyzer is calibrated by comparison with an ozone photometer which is certified as a transfer standard. The transfer standard is certified against absolute ozone photometers located at the California Air Resources Board test and laboratory facilities or NIST. The minimum detectable level of UV monitors is about 2-5 ppbv.

ECRD Publications

UV ABSORPTION METHOD
Interference's

Water vapor may also interfere with the UV method when water vapor concentrations are high and variable. These interference's appear to be due to the condensation of water vapor on imperfect absorption cell windows and Ozone scrubber.
In tropical area we recommend the installation of heated Ozone Scrubber to reduce interference's from water vapour.

ECRD Publications

EC9810 Principle
Sample Inlet Particulate Filter Microprocessor O3 Output

Detector

UV source

Absorption (Measurement Cell) exhaust


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ECRD Publications

EC9810 Operation
The EC9810 ozone monitor is a US EPA equivalent method (U.V.) photometer. This measurement principal is based on the ozones characteristics of absorbing U.V.light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. Two measurements of a U.V. lamps light intensities are taken in a measurement cycle. In the first, an air sample is passed directly to the sample cell, the second is directed through the ozone scrubber. The scrubber function is to selectively remove the ozone from the sample for the reference portion of the measurement cycle,leaving all other potential interferences intact. These interferences are then compensated by the differential process of subtracting the measurement cycle from the reference cycle to produce an ozone measurement.

ECRD Publications

Theory of operation cont.


To avoid interference from a number of compounds absorbing light at 254 nm, the predominant wavelength emitted by the UV lamp, such compounds include aromatics HC,NO, SO2,H2O and others including instability of the light source. The scrubber selectively removes O3 but passes the interfering compounds. Thus, the intensity ratio described in the previous paragraph is a function of only ozone absorption.

ECRD Publications

Ozone Analyzers in use in India


Envirotech commissioned the first Ozone Analyzer at Hyderabad in 2006
Early users of Ozone Analyzers supplied by Envirotech: Tata Power, Mumbai UP Pollution Control Board Kanpur, Varanasi and Agra Sri Ramchandra Institute, Chennai Annamalai University, Chennai NIT, Trichy
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ECRD Publications

Siting of Monitoring Station


Note that ozone is a reactive gas that is absorbed by vegetation, measurements should therefore be carried out well away from plant life. O3 Networks should sample 3-5m above ground level and more than 20 m away from trees. Sampling manifolds should be made of material that is inert to ozone, such as glass, Teflon,FEP, residence time of the sample gas should be as short as possible. The sample lines to the analyzer should be kept as short as possible to avoid losses, and should be thermally isolated to prevent condensation. Any ambient NO present in the sample air will react with some of the ozone during the residence time in the sample line.

ECRD Publications

EC9810 Specifications
Ozone Range: Resolution: Precision : Zero drift 30 day: Span drift 30 day: Temperature range: EPA designated range: Sample flow: 0 - 20 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.002 ppm/C0 or 0.5% 5 - 40 C0 0 - 50 to 0 - 1000 ppb 0 - 0.5 to 0 - 0.75 slpm

ECRD Publications