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Analysis of Benzene

Harsh K. Dixit

Envirotech Center for Research & Development


New Delhi

Principle
The ambient air is sucked through the activated charcoal tube using a low flow sampler used for collection of Banzene in a way that results in an enrichment of the relevant substances in the activated charcoal. Desorption of the adsorbed benzene is done by using carbon disulphide (CS2) The substances desorbed in the CS2 are analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. A flame ionization detector (FID) is used for analysis while quantification is performed using the standard.

Requirements
Low flow sampler Activated charcoal tube Gas chromatography with FID Fused silica capillary columns

Carbon disulphide (CS2) Purity >99.9% (GLC) Ultrasonicator Carrier Gas - Helium or Nitrogen Purity >99.9%

Sampling Procedure
A sample is collected by opening a tube at two ends, connecting it to a sampler Airborne chemicals are trapped onto the surface of the sorbent. Two tubes are used in series to take care of breakthrough compatible to the thermal desorber. Keep the tube in a vertical position during sampling to prevent the possibility of channeling that can lead to under sampling. Sampling flow rate is around 50ml/m. A sampling component may breakthrough from the back end of tube, if excessive flow rates are used. Sample is to be discarded, if the breakthrough is observed more than 10%. If analyzed concentration in backup section is more than 10% of front section, sample needs to be discarded.

Analytical Procedure
Sample collected through sorbent tubes are extracted or desorbed by 5ml of CS2 using ultrasonication for 15 min.

Gas flow
Nitrogen: 30ml/min (FID make up + column) (Column flow ~1ml/min) Hydrogen: 30ml/min Air: 300ml/min

Capillary Column 624


Coating: cyanopropyl phenyl polysiloxane Length: 30 meter Internal Diameter: 0.25mm Film thickness: 1.4m

Temperature programming
Injection port: 250C FID: 300C Column/Oven: 50C (hold for 3 min) Ramp @ 10C/min 140C (for 1 min)

Ramp @ 20C/min
240C (for 1 min)

Retention Time
Injection volume: 5 l Total run time: 19.5 min Split: 10

Benzene: 6.8 min, Search window: 1 sec, 3% Toluene: 9.18min, Search Window: 1 sec, 3% Xylene: 11.37 min, Search window: 1 sec, 3%

Calculation
C x VT x 103 Concentration (g/m3) = V2 x V3
at ambient condition

Where C = amount of benzene found injection sample volume from standard curve, in g/l VT = total volume of the sample extracted in ml V2 = volume of sample extract injected in GC, in l V3 = volume of air sucked through the tube, in m3 Blank value is to be subtracted from the amount of benzene found in the sample.

Calculation
Concentration (g/m3) =
at STP

C x 101.3 (273 +T) 273 x P

Where C = concentration at ambient condition, in g/m3 T = temperature of the ambient air, in C P = atmospheric pressure, in kPa

Volume of air sampled (m3) =


S = sampling rate, in ml/min t = sampling time, in min

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