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Sunday, April 01, 2012

In 1950s the approach to syllabus design consisted of a focus on general English using materials graded for vocabulary level and linguistic difficulty. Then, other approaches to language teaching were also available to fulfill the needs that time. The steps in changing the syllabus to curriculum development:

The Quest for New Methods

Changing Needs for Foreign Languages in Europe English for Specific Purposes Needs Analysis in ESP Communicative Language Teaching Emergence of a Curriculum Approach in Language Teaching
Sunday, April 01, 2012

World War II immigrants, refugees and foreign students UK, Canada, US, Australia There was much greater mobility of peoples as a result of growth in air travel, international trade and commerce. The initial response of the English-language teaching profession was to explore in direction in methodology. (before) Explore new teaching method linguistics organization & structure of language (after) A new approach Oral Approach Situational Language Teaching British circles 1950s The characteristics of Situational Language Teaching in British are: A structural syllabus with graded vocabulary level Meaningful presentation of structures in contexts PPP method- Presentation/Practice/Production
Sunday, April 01, 2012

1950s- Situational Approach British, Australia, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong 1960s- Audio-lingual Method United States 1. Habits are strengthened by reinforcement 2. Foreign language habits are formed most effectively by giving the right response 3. Language is behavior 1978s- Audiovisual Method Europe
Sunday, April 01, 2012

Jupp and Hodlin raised issue in1975: The upsurge in English language teaching (since the mid-1950s to1960s) was a) Introduce new methods and materials in the classroom b) How people learn a second language and what language is c) Why people learn a second language d) evaluation of result This called A language Teaching Revolution. In 1969s-The Council of Europe: a) removed language barriers b) provide a source of intellectual enrichment c) the study of modern European languages becomes general In 1970s- The Decision of School System In 1971s- The Unit-credit System for Adults
Sunday, April 01, 2012

To make the courses relevant to learners needs The Language for Specific Purpose Movement The ESP approach concerns: a) The need for Non-English background students b) The need for employment c) The need for business purpose d) The need for migrants

Sunday, April 01, 2012

The ESP student is usually studying English in order to carry out a particular role. Such as that of foreign student in an English-medium university, flight attendant, mechanic or doctor. Developed at University of Michigan language patterns and vocabulary A number of selected texts appeared in 1960s: a) The selection and gradation books b) General English books c) Specialized English books d) Word Frequency Counts e) Discourse Analysis

Sunday, April 01, 2012

The widely used books is Course in Basic Scientific English (Ewer & Latorre,1969) The merits of this book: a) three million words of scientific English b) covering ten areas of science & technology c) sentence patterns d) structural words e) non-structural vocabulary

Sunday, April 01, 2012

In 1970s, ESP approach in Language teaching drew on Register analysis and Discourse analysis to determine the linguistic characteristics of different disciplines. The determine of Register based on Halliday: 1st what is actually taking place 2nd what part the language is playing 3rd who is taking part Three categories describes the register based on Martin: a. the research process b. the vocabulary of analysis c. the vocabulary of evaluation
Sunday, April 01, 2012

Discourse analysis > identify the registers that characterized different uses of language. Based on the analysis of units of organization within the text or speech events, and examines pattern of rhetorical organization. A common discourse structure is problem-solution structure. Hoey describes it as follows: a. Introduction b. Background c. Argument d. Conclusion
Sunday, April 01, 2012

The starting point for Developing ESP programs, a number of approaches

were suggested.
1. Learners needs are communicative ability. (Schutz and Derwing) 2. Preparation for learners to carry out tasks (Stevens) 3. The students of ESP is usually studying to Perform a Role, such as waiters, food technologist, etc. (Robinson) 4. Learners, Teachers, and Employers involvement (Richterich and Chanceril)

Sunday, April 01, 2012

Munbys systematic approach:

1. Needs analysis in ESP course design

2. Two dimensions of needs analysis:
(a) (b)

Specification for the Target-Level Turning the Information into an ESP Syllabus Schutz and

Sunday, April 01, 2012

The Munby model describes the kind of information needed to develop a profile the learners communicative needs. Schutz and Derwings summarizations for profile of communicative needs: 1. Personal 2. Purpose 3. Setting 4. Interactional variables 5. Medium, mode, and channel 6. Dialects 7. Target level 8. Anticipated communicated events 9. Key
Sunday, April 01, 2012

Three categories of Wilkinss notional syllabus: a. Semantico-grammatical meaning 1. Time 2. quantity b. model meaning 1. Modality 2. Scale of certainty 3. Scale of commitment c. communicative function 1. Request 2. Complaints 3. Apologies 4. Compliment 5. Suggestion
Sunday, April 01, 2012

Yalden describes the goal of syllabus designers. The components to makeup the syllabus are:
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

The learners purposes The setting Role of the learner Participation in communicative events The language function The notions The skills The variety Grammatical content Lexical content

Sunday, April 01, 2012

A curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools. Rodgers (1989) comments: a. Syllabi: the content to be covered by a given course, from only a small part of the total school program. b. Curriculum: those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school.

Sunday, April 01, 2012

Tyler statements on the nature and process of curriculum development:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Educational purposes to be sought. (aims and objectives) Educational experiences to be provided. (content) Educational experiences to be organized. (organization) Educational experience to be attained. (evaluation)

The different opinions between Lawton and Tyler:



Lawtons Statement > Teachers Behavior for Educational Objectives Tylers Statement > Learners Behavior for Educational Objectives

Sunday, April 01, 2012

Nicholls and Nicholls describe curriculum development as involving 4

stages in 1972s:
a. b. c. d.

The Careful Examination The Development and Trial Use The Assessment of the Extent The Final Element

Sunday, April 01, 2012

Clark identifies the components of the process of curriculum renewal:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The Review of Principles The Reworking of Syllabuses The Review of Learning Strategies Embodying Appropriate Learning Experiences The Review of Assessment Designed The Review of Classroom Schemes The Review and Creation of Strategies Designed


The Further Research

The Review or Devising on In-service Education Designed
Sunday, April 01, 2012

Curriculum Development here refers to the range of planning and

implementation processes involved in developing or renewing a

curriculum. The focuses of Curriculum Development are: 1. Needs Analysis 2. Situational Analysis 3. Planning Learning Outcomes 4. Course Organization 5. Selecting Teaching Material 6. Preparing Teaching Material 7. Providing for Effective Teaching 8. Evaluation
Sunday, April 01, 2012


Sunday, April 01, 2012