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Downstream Processing in Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing

Harvest and Clarification Tangential Flow Filtration (UF/DF) Low Pressure Liquid Column Chromatography

Know the Characteristics of Your Protein Human Serum Albumin

Sequence of Amino Acids

Tertiary Structure

Know the Characteristics of Your Protein

Human Serum Albumin: MW (molecular weight = 69,000 Daltons (69 kD) pI (isoelectric point) = 5.82 Hydropathicity (=hydrophobicity) = -.395

Typical Production Process Flow

Ampule Thaw

Inoculum Expansion (Spinner Bottles)

(Feed1) (Feed 2)

(Feed 3) (Feed 4)

Concentration / Diafiltration

Chrom 3 Chrom 2 Viral Removal Filtration Chrom 1

LSCC Mfg Process Overview

Media Prep
Working Cell Bank

Large Scale Bioreactor

1 day
Centrifuge Depth Filtration Collection

Seed Bioreactors 750L Bioreactor 5,000L Bioreactor

26,000L Bioreactor

150L Bioreactor SubCulture SubCulture SubCulture SubCulture SubCulture Wave Bag



Viral Inactivation

24 days
Harvest Collection Tank 1,500L

31 days
Column Eluate Hold Tank 8,000L Column Chromatography Skid Eluate Eluate Hold Hold Tank Tank 20,000L 20,000L

Chromatography Skid

Anion Exchange Chromatography (QXL)

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)

Filter Column

Chromatography Skid

Eluate Hold Tank 6,000L

Post-viral Hold Vessel 3,000L Viral Filtering


Chromatography Skid

Eluate Hold Tank


Protein A Chromatography

Anion Exchange Chromatography

Ultra Filtration Diafiltration

Bulk Fill

8 days

(QFF - Fast Flow)

Clarification or Removal of Cells and Cell Debris

Using Centrifugation (Using Depth Filtration)

Continuous Centrifugation Media and Cells In & Clarified Media Out

Separation of particles from liquid by applying a pressure to the solution to force the solution through a filter. Filters are materials with pores.
Particles larger than the pore size of the filter are retained by the filter.

Particles smaller than the pore size of the filter pass through the filter along with the liquid.

Tangential Flow Filtration

Uses crossflow to reduce build up of retained components on the membrane surface

Allows filtration of high fouling streams and high resolution

Tangential Flow Filtration TFF Separation of Protein of Interest

Using TFF with the right cut off filters, the protein of interest can be separated from other proteins and molecules in the clarified medium. HSA has a molecular weight of 69KD. To make sure that the protein of interest is retained, a 10KD cut-off filter is used. After we concentrate or ultrafilter our protein, we can diafilter, adding the phosphate buffer at pH 7.1 that we will use to equilibrate our affinity column to prepare for affinity chromatography of HSA.

Overview of TFF SOP

Prepare buffer: Sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.1 Set up the apparatus-CAUTION Stored in NaOH Flush with water-CAUTION Stored in NaOH Adjust flow rate to 30-50ml/min Flush retentate line Flush permeate line Precondition with buffer (just the permeate line) Perform TFF Prepare cleaning solution (NaOH) Flush with water Flush with NaOH to clean and store

Downstream Processing Equipment

Lab-Scale TFF System Large-Scale TFF System

Lab-Scale TFF Filter = Palls Pellicon

How TFF Concentrates and Diafilters the Protein of Interest

Low Pressure Production Chromatography

The System: Components and Processes The Media: Affinity, Ion Exchange, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography and Gel Filtration

LP LC Components
Mixer for Buffers, Filtrate with Protein of Interest, Cleaning Solutions Peristaltic Pump Injector to Inject Small Sample (in our case for HETP Analysis) Chromatography Column and Media (Beads) Conductivity Meter UV Detector

Peristaltic Pump

Creates a gentle squeezing action to move fluid through flexible tubing.

UV Detector
Detects proteins coming out of the column by measuring absorbance at 280nm

Conductivity Meter
Measures the amount of salt in the buffers high salt or low salt are often used to elute the protein of interest from the chromatography beads. Also measures the bolus of salt that may be used to determine the efficiency of column packing (HETP)

Liquid Column Chromatography Process

Purge Air from System with Equilibration Buffer Pack Column with Beads (e.g. ion exchange, HIC, affinity or gel filtration beads) Equilibrate Column with Equilibration Buffer Load Column with Filtrate containing Protein of Interest in Equilibration Buffer Wash Column with Equilibration Buffer Elute Protein of Interest with Elution Buffer of High or Low Salt or pH Regenerate Column or Clean and Store

Downstream Processing Equipment

Lab Scale Chromatography System Large Scale Chromatography System

Overview of LP LC Chromatography
The molecules of interest, in our case proteins, are adsorbed or stuck to beads packed in the column. We are interested in the equilibrium between protein free in solution and protein bound to the column. The higher the affinity of a protein for the bead the more protein will be bound to the column at any given time. Proteins with a high affinity travel slowly through the column because they are stuck a significant portion of the time. Molecules with a lower affinity will not stick as often and will elute more quickly. We can change the relative affinity of the protein for the column (retention time) and mobile phase by changing the mobile phase (the buffer). Hence the difference between loading buffers and elution buffers. This is how proteins are separated. The most common type of adsorption chromatography is ion exchange chromatography. The others used in commercial biopharmaceutical production are affinity, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration.

Column Chromatography

Separates molecules by their chemical and physical differences Most common types: Size exclusion (Gel filtration): separates by molecular weight Ion exchange: separates by charge Affinity chromatography: specific binding Hydrophobic Interaction: separates by hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics

Gel Filtration Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography relies on charge-charge interactions between the protein of interest and charges on a resin (bead). Ion exchange chromatography can be subdivided into cation exchange chromatography, in which a positively charged protein of interest binds to a negatively charged resin; and anion exchange chromatography, in which a negatively charged protein of interest binds to a positively charged resin. One can manipulate the charges on the protein by knowing the pI of the protein and using buffers of different pHs to alter the charge on the protein. Once the protein of interest is bound, the column is washed with equilibration buffer to remove unattached entities. Then the bound protein of interest is eluted off using an elution buffer of increasing ionic strength or of a different pH. Either weakens the attachment of the protein of interest to the bead and the protein of interest is bumped off and eluted from the resin. Ion exchange resins are the cheapest of the chromatography media available and are therefore almost always used as a step in biopharmaceutical protein production purification.

Isoelectric Focusing or IEF

Once you know the pI of your protein (or the pH at which your protein is neutral), you can place it in a buffer at a lower or higher pH to alter its charge. If the pH of the buffer is less than the pI, the protein of interest will become positively charged. If the pH of the buffer is greater than the pI, the protein of interest will become negatively charged.

pH < pI < pH + 0 -

Affinity Chromatography
Affinity chromatography separates the protein of interest on the basis of a reversible interaction between it and its antibody coupled to a chromatography bead (here labeled antigen) . With high selectivity, high resolution, and high capacity for the protein of interest, purification levels in the order of several thousand-fold are achievable. The protein of interest is collected in a purified, concentrated form. Biological interactions between the antigen and the protein of interest can result from electrostatic interactions, van der Waals' forces and/or hydrogen bonding. To elute the protein of interest from the affinity beads, the interaction can be reversed by changing the pH or ionic strength. The concentrating effect enables large volumes to be processed. The protein of interest can be purified from high levels of contaminating substances. Making antibodies to the protein of interest is expensive, so affinity chromatography is the least economical choice for production chromatography.

Affinity Chromatography

Abs 280nm

Time (min)

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC)

HIC is finding dramatically increased use in production chromatography. Antibodies are quite hydrophobic and therapeutic antibodies are the most important proteins in the biopharmaceutical pipeline. Since the molecular mechanism of HIC relies on unique structural features, it serves as a non-redundant option to ion exchange, affinity, and gel filtration chromatography. It is very generic, yet capable of powerful resolution. Usually HIC media have high capacity and are economical and stable. Adsorption takes place in high salt and elution in low salt concentrations.

Common Process Compounds and Methods of Purification or Removal

Component Therapeutic Antibody Isoforms Serum and host proteins Cell debris and colloids Bacterial pathogens Virus pathogens DNA Endotoxins Lipids, surfactants Buffer Extractables/leachables Purification reagents

Culture Harvest Level 0.1-1.5 g/l Various 0.1-3.0 g/l 106/ml Various Various 1 mg/l Various 0-1 g/l Growth media Various Various

Final Product Level 1-10 g/l Monomer < 0.1-10 mg/l None <10-6/dose <10-6/dose (12 LRV) 10 ng/dose <0.25 EU/ml <0.1-10 mg/l Stability media <0.1-10 mg/l <0.1-10mg/l

Conventional Method UF/Cromatography Chromatography Chromatography MF MF virus filtration Chromatography Chromatography Chromatography UF UF/ Chromatography UF

Actual BioLogic System

Complex System Not easy to see interaction of components Students use virtual system to prepare to use actual system Use virtual system for BIOMANonline System same as industrial chromatography skid

Conductivity Meter UV Detector Injector Valve

Buffer Select


Peristaltic Pump

The Virtual Chromatography Laboratory