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Class Aves

BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

Class Aves
Feathers No teeth Flexible long neck
One occipital condyle

Scales on legs Bones with air spaces Endothermic Four chambered heart
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Adaptations for Flight


Honey combed bones
Air cavities Less weight

Light Weight Skeleton


Frigate bird 7 foot wing span 4 ounce skeleton

Adaptations for Flight


Enlarged sternum
Flight muscle attachment

Long neck
balance

11-25 Cervical Vertebrae

Pygostyle

Skull
Most bones fused Much lighter than reptile or mammal skull

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Adaptations for Flight


Wing
lift

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Adaptations for Flight


Feathers
Light weight Strong

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Adaptations for Flight


Reduce body weight
No teeth No urinary bladder No penis Only one ovary

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Migration
Sissor-tailed flycatchar Migates to Central and South America in October Returns in April

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Migration
Arctic tern Migrates 25,000 miles!

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Beak Adaptations
Ripping flesh

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Beak Adaptations
Eating seeds

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Beak Adaptations
Sucking nectar from flowers

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Beak Adaptations
Drilling wood

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Beak Adaptations
Catching fish

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Beak Adaptations
Basket-like bill to hold fish caught under water

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Beak Adaptations
Filtering

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Digestive System
Crop
Storage

Proventriculus
Enzymes

Gizzard
Grind food

Cloaca
Waste Reproduction
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Vision
Up to 8 times keener than human vision Each eye moves indendtantly

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Respiratory System
Nine air sacs
Connect to lungs and centers of bones Cools the bird

Fresh air always moving


No dead ends as in mammals

Each wing beat moves air


Never run out of air
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Benefits of Birds to Man


Eat insects, rodents and weeds Spread seeds for flowers and trees Food Sport Pets

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Fastest Animal
Peregrine falcon Strikes prey at 180 mph

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Elephant Bird
Eleven feet tall 1100 pounds Largest egg ever Extinct in late 1600s

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Giant Moa
New Zealand Hunted to extinction about 1600

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Hummingbirds
Fly up, down, left, right, backwards and upside down Wings beat 50 -200 times per second Heart rate =600 bpm Eat 2/3 body weight each day Nectar, pollen & insects
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Chicks
Altricial
No feathers Cannot walk or see Cannot feed themselves

Precocial
Down feathers Can walk and see Can feed themselves
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Caudipteryx
Feathered dinosaur Flightless Transitional fossil
Dinosaur arms Dinosaur teeth
Only front of upper jaw

Bird feathers

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Archaeopteryx
147 MYA Transitional fossil
Characteristics of reptiles Characteristics of birds

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Archeopteryx
Reptile characteristics
Teeth Boney tail Fingers with claws

Bird characteristics
Feathers Furcula

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Click Image for Movie

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Evolution of Flight Running Hypothesis

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Microraptor gui

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Evolution of Flight Gliding Hypothesis

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Sexual Selection

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Bird Classification
28 orders 9600 species

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Order Struthioniformes
Large flightless bird Two toes

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Order Pelecaniformes
Gular sac

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Order Ciconiiformes
Long legs for wading Long necks

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Order Anseriformes
Flat bill Webbed feet

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Order Falconiformes
Hooked bill Talons Eagle Hawk Falcon

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Order Passeriformes
Perching foot Songbirds 5000 species Mocking bird Thrushes Swallows Magpie Crow Starling Jays
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Order Columbiformes
Short neck Short legs Pigeons Doves

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Order Strigiformes
Large eyes Silent flight Nocturnal predator Owls

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Order Apodiformes
Small bird Rapid wingbeat Hummingbirds

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Order Galliformes
Chicken like Strong beaks Heavy feet Chicken Turkey Pheasants Quail

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Order Charadriiformes
Short bill Strong fliers Shorebirds Gulls

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Order Psittaciformes
Thick tongue Hinged and movable upper beak Bright colors Parrots Parakeets

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Order Piciformes
Two toes forward and two toes backward woodpeckers

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Order Sphenisciformes
Webbed feet Wings as used for swimming penquins

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Bird Information

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The End

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The End

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