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PENGURUSAN ORGANISASI

Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah

Ancient:
Masyarakat Sumaria mengamalkan sistem

perniagaan dan postal; Sistem kerajaan di Mesir dan pembangunan piramid; Babylonians (Mesopotamians) mengamalkan kerajaan berpusat, penyatuan budaya dan kod perundangan mengenai kontrak, pemilikan harta dan perundangan mencegah penipuan perniagaan. Ancient Greek & China

Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah

Pengurusan Saintifik (F.W. Taylor; 1856-1915): Pengurus perlu menyediakan kaedah yang standard

bagi melaksanakan sesuatu kerja; Pemilihan pekerja hendaklah berdasarkan kepakaran dan keupayaan untuk melaksanakan sesuatu kerja khusus; Pekerja hendaklah dilatih mengenai cara untuk melaksanakan sesuatu pekerjaan; Pengurus perlu merancang dan mengadakan pengagihan kerja;

Pengurusan: Ringkasan Sejarah

Prinsip-prinsip Pentadbiran (Henry Fayol; 1841-1925); Division of work : To produce more and better work the same amount of effort.Managerial and technical work are amenable to specialization. Authority and responsibility : Authority is needed to carry out managerial responsibilities. This includes the formal authority to command and personal authority deriving from intelligence and experience. Responsibility always goes with authority. Discipline :Discipline is absolutely essential for the smooth running of business. Unity of command:Each subordinate receives orders from one and only one superior.

Unity of direction : Similar activities in an organization should be grouped together under one manager. Subordination of individual interest to general interest : Individuals interests should not be placed before the goals of the overall orginazation. Remuneration of personnel : Compensation should be fair to both employees and the organization. Centrallization : Power and authority tend to be concentered at upper levels of the organization. Degree of centralization must vary according to the situation ; the object is the optimal utilization of all personnel faculities. Scalar chain : A chain of authority extends from the top to the bottom of the organization. However, horizontal communication is necessary for swift action.

Order : A place for everything and everything in its place; a place for everyone and everyone in his or her place. Equity : Managers should be kind and fair when dealing with subordinates. Stability of personnel tenure : High employee turnover should be prevented. Initiative : Subordinates should have the freedom to take initiative. Esprit de corps : Harmony, team spirit, and a sense or unity and togetherness should be fostered and maintained.

Definisi Pengurusan
Attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources.

The Organization
The

social entity (two or more people) and system (set of interrelated that transform input to output) goal directed & deliberately structured (divided task & responsibility for performance to organizations members) to achieves common objectives.

The organizations environment


Economics Competi tors Legal/ politics Suppliers

General

TASK INTERNAL

Technolo gical Custo mers Socialcultural Labor supply

International

The Internal Environments Of The Organization:

Directional Strategies-Vision, mission and objectives; Planning & implementation policies, strategy & system (4M+ information) Behaviors & Culture of the organization; workplace Style of the management & leadership.

Task (external) environment

The government & stakeholders- policies & the expectation; The clients-socio-economy, geography, demography, expectation, need & demand; The labors market-policy & capabilities; The suppliers/ providers The agencies/ organizations & competitors Technology & information.

The General (External) Environment

Politics Socio-economy Geography & demography Industrialization & marketing Technology Information Organizations

Organizations processes To produce output (Objectives)


Internal/task/ general environment

Input

Process

Output

Internal/task/ general environment

Input-resources to produce output/ product.


Men/women

power; Money/ fund/allocation of budget, Infrastructures; Equipments Technologies,

Process-transformations of input to output:

Structure-allocation of task, resources, chains of command, hierarchy, authority. Work process/flow, system, procedures, Manuals, standard & regulations. Implementations, control & preventive.

Output- Goods or Services

Fulfill the objective/ requirement/ expectation/ need & demand; Quantity; Quality; Productivity Efficient & effective. Non conformance cost.

The hierarchy of the managers

Top managers- The highest in the structure & hierarchy, responsible for entire organization. Middle managers- middle in hierarchy & chains of command, responsible for the major department First line managers-directly responsible & accountable for the production/ delivery of products/ services (output).

The Management Function


(select goals, future, performance, Task & resources to attain them)

Planning

(monitor & correction)

Controlling

(assign responsibility For task & allocate Resources)

Organizing

(influence to motivate)

Leading

Planning
Defining goals for future organizational performance And deciding on the task & resource use needed To attain them Implementation/ Control/ evaluate

Define Org. Current situation

Set specific goals Formulate strategies

Finalize Strategic plan

Dev. Tactical/ Operational Goals & plans

Set timetables/ schedules

Analyze risks & resources

Planning: direction of the organization


VISION: general statement long-term direction to archive. Mission: The organizations reason for existence. Goals: What the org. want to be in the future, pertain to the org. as a whole rather than to specific department. Objective: A specific short-term target for which measurable result/ output can be obtain. Strategy: how to responding to the ever changing & dynamic environment to fulfill mission & objectives.

Strategic Planning/ Management

Is focused on the future within a context of a changing, but relatively predictable environment. It consists 3 activities: Formulation of the future mission

Developing the competitive strategy


Creation of organization structure- deploy

resources.

The Strategic Planning/ Management

The comprehensive & Long period plan/ blueprint (2-5 years) overall organization The set of decision & actions used to formulate and implement strategies that will provide competitively superior fit between the organization and its environment (Internal & external) so as to achieve organizational future goals/objectives.

Strategic Planning/ Management


Evaluate Current: -Mission
ExternalOpportunities & Threats

New/ Strength

-Goals
-Strategies

-Output/ Performence

InternalStrengths & Weaknesses

-Mission/ -Goals/ -Strategies -leadership style -restructure -HRD -Information -system & procedures -technology

Operational plans
Short

period Plans developed at the organizations lower levels (departments, branches, unit) that specify action steps toward achieving operational (daily, weekly, monthly or yearly) goals and support strategic plans.

Strategies:

The plan of action that prescribes activities and resources for dealing with the environment to attain the organizations goal.

Situation Analysis: Search for characteristics SWOT from internal & external environment which directly/ indirectly may prevent/ can be exploit to achieve organization goal.

Function Of Management 2 ORGANISING


The

creation of framework in which organization defines how task are divided, resources are deployed and departments are coordinated and communicated.

Organizing Process
Created

the organization structure/ chart based on the interrelated elements as bellow; departmentalization-nature of work/ function/specialization task, geographical location, product. set of formal task assigned to individual/ departmental/ unit;

Allocate the reasonable resources to implement task; Formal reporting relationship & communication- centralization/ decentralization, line of authority, decision responsibility, number of hierarchical level & span of managers control/ command Formalization-written documentation use to direct/ guide & control employees.

Management function 3LEAD THE ORGANIZATION


LEADERSHIP

The ability to influence other people toward the attainment of organizational goal.

Leaders
The task to influence (self-apparent, intelligent & styles, communicate, motivation, educate, guidance, supervise, control, punishment) subordinate and others to do the thing right, to enhance the excellence and to achieve the goals/ objectives of the organization.

Sources of leader influence-

power (potential ability to influence others)

Legitimate power: formal management position & authority granted to it. Reward power: authority to bestow reward Coercive power: authority to punish or recommend punishment Expert power: special knowledge & skill Referent power: characteristics to respect, admiration & desire to emulate.

potential ability to influence-situation


leadership style (personal characteristics & work environment)
Leader-member relation (humanisms) highly respect, confident & trust to subordinate knowledge & skill, commitments & responsibilities. Task structure- emphasis to achieve goals, output, specifics system & procedures, commitments & how subordinate carried-out the task; Position power- shown the formal power/ authority to direct, evaluate, reward & punish.

The

arousal, direction and persistence of behavior. that influence job satisfaction based on fulfillment of higher-level needs such as achievement, recognition, responsibility and opportunity for growth.

MOTIVATION

Factors

A Simple Model Of Motivation


Creates desire to fulfill needs (food, friendship, recognition & achievement)

NEED-

BehaviorAction to Fulfill need

Fulfill needs/ Not fulfill Satisfied/ not

Mallow's Hierarchy Of Need


Self actualization (training, growth & Creativity) Esteem need (recognition, High status & incr. responsibilities Belongingness needs Safety needs

Physiological needs (air, food, water, sex & place to stay)

Management function 4controlling.


The

systematic process through which managers regulate organizational activities to make them consistent with the expectations established in plans, target, and performance standard.

What to control

Subordinate behavior and performance Allocation, utilization, functional, maintenance & performance of funding, facilities, infrastructures, equipments & technologies. Processes & procedures Task/ units, departmental, organization performance/ output

The control process


Establish Indicators & Standards Performance & Method & Mechanisms Of measure Data Collection (Performance) Compare Performance Vrs standards

Corrective action

Managing Change
The

adoption of new idea or behavior by an organization, that is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely manner to meet current and anticipated future need

Forces for change

External forces: customers, competitors, technology, economics & international. Internal forces: Performance gap: disparity between existing and desired performance level.

Initiating Change
Search-learning

about current developments inside/outside. used to meet a perceived need for change. Creativity- development of novel solutions to perceived organizational problems

Entrepreneurs-individual who anticipate the need for productive change & champion within the organization. Venture team-a group separate from organization. Skunk works- a small & informal and some time unauthorized group who create innovation

Resistance to change
Self

interest - loss of power, authority, prestige, pay & other benefits. Uncertainty - lack of information about change and future events. Different assessments and goals-