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Physiology, Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation

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Bio 11, Week 9 Purves et al., Chapter 41

Outline
Tissues, organs, organ systems
4 types of tissues Organs consist of multiple tissue types Organ systems are groups of organs that function together

Physiologic regulation & Homeostasis


Ectotherms and Endotherms

Thermoregulation
Feedback loops

Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems


Cells organized into tissues Tissues are organized into organs Organs are organized into organ systems

4 Types of Tissues
When cells with the same characteristics or specializations are grouped together, they form a type of tissue
Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous

Epithelial Tissue
Covers the body and lines organs Sheets of densely packed, tightly connected cells that cover surfaces Comprise the skin and line hollow organs (gut) Some epithelial cells are secretory (hormones, mucus, sweat, digestive enzymes)

Epithelial Tissue cont.


Some epithelial cells have cilia to transport substances over surfaces or through tubes Some epithelial cells have protective functions (create boundaries bt inside and outside) Epithelial cells can also form receptors to provide information to the nervous system (smell and taste receptors)

Epithelial Tissue cont.


Have distinct inner and outer surfaces Inner surfaces = basal ends of the epithelial cells (rests on basal lamina) Outer surfaces = apical ends of the epithelial cells

Epithalial Tissue cont.

Connective Tissue
Support and reinforce other tissues Dispersed populations of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix comprised of proteins
Collagen (25% total body protein) Elastin (wrinkles with aging)

Connective Tissue cont.


Cartilage provides rigid, structural support
Collagen fibers embedded in flexible matrix

Bone provides rigid, structural support


Collagen fibers hardened by calcium phosphate

Adipose Tissue
Stored energy

Blood

Connective Tissue cont.

Muscle Tissue
Contract and cause movement Elongated cells Most abundant tissue type When active (contracting) use most of the energy produced by the body

Silverthorn, Human Physiology, 3rd edition Figure 12-1,2

Nervous Tissue
Process information Neurons communicate via electrical and chemical signals Glial cells support neurons (outnumber them too)

Organs
Consist of multiple tissue types Ex. Wall of stomach
Inner surface lined with epithelial cells that secreted mucus and digestive enzymes Connective tissue underneath epithelial lining Muscle tissue (smooth) allows stomach to contract Neurons control contractions and secretions

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Organ Systems
Controlled and regulated to achieve constancy in the internal environment of the organism.
Nervous Endocrine Muscles Skeletal Reproductive Digestive Respiratory Circulatory Lymphatic Immune Skin Excretory

The endocrine system of humans


Pineal gland Hypothalamus Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus Heart Liver Stomach and small intestine

Pancreas

Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Kidney Silverthorn, Human Physiology, 3rd edition Figure 7-2 Skin Gonads

Homeostasis
Single-celled organisms meet all of their needs by direct exchange with the external environment Evolution of an internal environment, distinct from external environment, made multi-cellular organisms feasible Homeostasis allows for conditions of internal (intracellular) environment to remain constant and optimal even when the external environment fluctuates

The External and Internal Environments


Materials enter and leave the body
Exchange cells

The External Environment

Intracellular fluid

Intracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) (This is the Internal Environment)

Protective cells

ECF is the interface between the external environment and the cells
Stratton with permission

Homeostasis cont.
Homeostasis depends on the ability to regulate the activities of organs and organ systems to keep the internal environment constant Generally, activities of organs/organ systems are controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems

Failure to maintain homeostasis results in disease or pathology

Claude Bernard
He recognized that an animals independence from changing external conditions is related to its capacity to maintain a relatively constant Internal environment.

Silverthorn,

3rd

ed.

Claude Bernard (1813 - 1878)

Walter Cannon
Recognized that the key to maintaining a relatively stable internal environment is the presence of regulatory mechanisms in the body.

He coined the term homeostasis to describe the maintenance of this stable internal environment. homeo = similar, stasis = state
Walter Bradford Cannon (1871 - 1945)

Silverthorn, 3rd ed.

Temperature
External temps vary enormously Living cells can function over a narrow (tolerable) range of temps (0-45C) Q10 is a measure of temp sensitivity
Q10 = RT/RT-10

Q10 and Reaction Rate

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Optimal Body Temperature


Ectotherms depend on external sources of heat, such as solar radiation, to maintain body temperature Endotherms can regulate their body temperature by producing heat metabolically (mammals and birds)

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Energy Budgets
Both ectotherms and endotherms can alter their body temperature by altering 4 characteristics of heat exchange b/t their bodies and the environment
Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation

Heat Loss Side Depends on Surface Temp/Blood Flow to Skin

Heatin
Metabolism + Rabs

Heatout

= Rout + convection + conduction + evaporation

Reflex Control Pathways Maintain Setpoints


Response Loop Input signal Integration of signal Output signal or response Feedback Loop Response feeds back to impact the Input (to correct error signal)

Response Loops
Stimulus

Sensor

Afferent Path

Integrating Center

Efferent Path

Effector

Response

Negative Feedback Loops


Stimulus

Sensor

Afferent Path

Integrating Center

Efferent Path

Effector

Response

Thermoregulation in Endoderms
Thermoneutral zones and basal metabolic rates Basal metabolic rates are related to body size Endotherms respond to cold by producing heat
Shivering heat production Nonshivering heat production

Shivering
Depends on contractile machinery of skeletal muscles to consume ATP Tremor results Conversion of ATP to ADP results in heat production

Nonshivering Heat Production


Brown fat Thermogenin uncouples proton movement from ATP production, so metabolic fuels are consumed without producing ATP Heat is still released

Regulatory Thermostat
Controls thermoregulatory adaptations and mechanisms (shivering) Integrative center is in hypothalamus, which establishes a temperature set point and receives feedback information Temperature of external environment is sensed by skin sensors (feedforward)

Hypothalamus

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