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Business law

HMM 201 Click to edit Master subtitle style Unit -1

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Introduction To Law
What is Law? Acc to Oxford English Dictionary the word Law means rules made by authority for the proper regulation of a community or society or for correct conduct in life.

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Introduction To Law
Law is that portion of the established habits and thought of mankind which has gained distinct and formal recognition in the shape of uniform rules backed by the authority and power of the government. Woodrow Wilson
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Introduction to law
Law denotes rules and principles either enforced by an authority or selfimposed by the members of a society to control and regulate peoples behavior with a view to securing justice, peaceful, peaceful living and social security.
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Business Law

Definition: Business Law may be defined as that branch of law which comprises laws concerning trade, industry and commerce. Scope: It is generally understood to include the Laws relating to Contracts, Sale of Goods, Partnership,Companies,Negotiable Instruments, Insurance, Insolvency, Carriage of Goods and Arbitration . 4/11/12

Constitution of India
The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign socialist democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world. It contains 395 articles and 12 schedules, as well as numerous amendments, for a total of 1,17,369 4/11/12 words in the English language

Preamble of the Constitution


We, the people of India, Having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

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Fundamental Rights
Equality before the law. Freedom from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. Freedom of speech and expression. Right to assembly peacefully without arms. Protection against deprivation of life 4/11/12 personal liberty. and

Fundamental Duties

Added to the Constitution in 1977. To abide by the Constitution. Respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture. To protect and improve the national environment including forests, lakes, 4/11/12

Law Enforcement In India

Law enforcement in India is conducted by numerous law enforcement agencies. Like many federal structures, the nature of the Constitution of India mandates law and order as a subject of the state, therefore the bulk of the policing lies with the respective states and territories of India.
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Law Enforcement In India

At the federal level, the many agencies are part of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs, and support the states in their duties. All senior police officers in the state police forces, as well as those in the federal agencies, are members of the Indian Police Service (IPS), one of the civil services.
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Law Enforcement In India


Central Agencies:

Border Security Force. Central Bureau of Investigation. Central Industrial Security Force. Central Reserve Police Force. National Security Guards. National Investigation Agency.
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Law Enforcement In India


Central Police Organizations:

Bureau of Police Research & Development. National Crime Records Bureau. Central Forensic Science Laboratory. National Institute of Forensic Science.

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Law Enforcement In India


State Police:

Organization. Metropolitan Police. Traffic Police.

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Government of India

The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India. It is seated in New Delhi, the capital of India.
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Government of India
The government comprises three branches:

Legislature. Executive. Judiciary.

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Government of India

The Legislative branch or the Parliament consists of the lower house, the Lok Sabha, and the upper house, the Rajya Sabha, as well as the president. The Executive branch headed by the President, who is the Head of State and exercises his or her power directly or through officers subordinate to him. 4/11/12

Government of India

The Judicial branch has the Supreme Court at its apex, 21 High Courts, and numerous civil, criminal and family courts at the district level.

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Indian Judiciary

The three-tiered system of Indian judiciary comprises of Supreme Court (New Delhi) at its helm; High Courts standing at the head of state judicial system; Followed by district and sessions courts in the judicial districts, into which the states are divided. 4/11/12

The Supreme Court

On the 28th of January, 1950, the Supreme Court came into being. The judges of the Supreme Court at the time of inauguration were Chief Justice Harilal J. Kania and Justices Saiyid Fazl Ali, M. Patanjali Sastri, Mehr Chand Mahajan, Bijan Kumar Mukherjea and S. R. Das. The first Attorney General for India 4/11/12 Mr. M.C. Setalvad. was

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court of India comprises the Chief Justice and not more than 25 (30) other Judges appointed by the President of India. The proceedings of the Supreme Court are conducted in English only. The Registry of the Supreme Court is headed by the Registrar General. The Attorney General for India is 4/11/12 appointed by the President of India

The High Courts

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The High Courts are generally the last court of regular appeal. Besides, for invoking writ jurisdiction, the High Courts can be approached for enforcement of other rights. It has the power to supervise the subordinate courts falling within its territorial jurisdiction. The High Courts are Courts of Record.

The High Courts

Cont

The High Court hears First Appeals from the decisions of the District Courts. Section 100 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides for a Second Appeal from Appellate decrees. Under Section 115 of the Code, the High Court is conferred wish revisional jurisdiction.
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Under Article 227 of the Constitution

The High Courts

Cont

On the Criminal side, the High Court has to confirm all sentences of death passed by Courts of Sessions and hear References in this behalf. High Court hears Criminal Appeals from convictions awarded by Sessions Judges and Additional Sessions Judges or from the judgment of any other Court, where a sentence for more than seven years 4/11/12

The Subordinate Courts


This subordinate Courts are: (a) District Courts, empowered to hear appeals from courts of original civil jurisdiction besides having original civil jurisdiction (b) Sessions Court is courts of criminal jurisdiction, having the similar scope of powers. The courts of specific original 4/11/12 jurisdiction are courts of Civil Judges,

Quasi - Judicial System

This appendage to the Indian judicial system is a recent & sincere attempt on the part of the government to expedite the judicial process through dilution of procedural formalities & avoidance of litigation. Tribunals form an indispensable part of this system, which are appointed by the government and comprise of judges & experts on the particular 4/11/12

Source of Law

Primary Source:

a. The primary source of law is in the enactments passed by the Parliament or the State Legislatures. b. The President and the Governor have limited powers to issue ordinances. c. These ordinances lapse six weeks from the re-assembly of the Parliament 4/11/12 or the State Legislature.

Source of Law

Cont.

Secondary Source:

a. Secondary source of law is the judgments of the Supreme Court, High Courts and some of the specialized Tribunals. b. The Constitution provides that the law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within India.
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Need For Law

The disputed question is "is law really needed"? As simplistic as it may seem to answer, it is fundamental that we ask. laws are guidelines that set out appropriate behaviour that has been developed over time. They are based on moral beliefs, a human condition that sets out a 4/11/12 purpose that society in general is

Need For Law

Without the fulfilment of these desired tasks, man simply will become equal to animals or worse still, allow their darker sides (or impulses) to emerge and control their lives. law acts as a guardian against the inevitable anarchy that would engulf humanity .
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Where do the Laws come from?


There are various sources of Law. The most important source is the parliament. The Politicians in the country draft the bills. These bills are put in front of the house i.e. The Lok Sabha. The bills is when passed by the 2/3rd of the majority of the house, it goes 4/11/12

Where do the Laws come from?

Judges also form Laws by the verdicts and the judgments that they give in court cases. The verdict or the judgment becomes Law.

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Types of Business Law

What are the different types of law that business managers need to know about ? Law of Contract. Law of Sale of Goods. Law of Negotiable Instruments. Law of Arbitration and Conciliation. Law of Consumer Protection.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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THANKS
Interesting Legal websites: www.indlii.org www.judis.nic.in www.indiacode.nic.in www.delhicourts.nic.in www.legalbasket.com www.indiacyber.net www.cybercases.blogspot.com

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