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Multinational Financial Management

Alan Shapiro

7th Edition
J.Wiley & Sons
Power Points by Joseph F. Greco, Ph.D. California State University, Fullerton
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CHAPTER 2
THE DETERMINATION OF EXCHANGE RATES

CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW:
I. EQUILIBRIUM EXCHANGE RATES II. ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS III. EXPECTATIONS AND THE ASSET MARKET MODEL

Part I. Equilibrium Exchange Rates


I. SETTING THE EQUILIBRIUM A. Exchange Rates market-clearing prices that equilibrate the quantities supplied and demanded of foreign currency.
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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


B. How Americans Purchase German Goods
1. Foreign Currency Demand -derived from the demand for foreign countrys goods, services, and financial assets. e.g. The demand for German goods by Americans

Equilibrium Exchange Rates


2. Foreign Currency Supply: a. derived from the foreign countrys demand for local goods. b. They must convert their currency to purchase. e.g. German demand for US goods means Germans convert DM to US $ in order to buy.
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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


3. Equilibrium Exchange Rate: occurs when the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded of a foreign currency at a specific local price.

Equilibrium Exchange Rates


C. How Exchange Rates Change 1. Increased demand
as more foreign goods are demanded, the price of the foreign currency in local currency increases and vice versa.
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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


2. Home Currency Depreciation
a. b. Foreign currency becomes more valuable than the home currency. The foreign currencys value has appreciated against the home currency.

Equilibrium Exchange Rates


3. Calculating a Depreciation:
Currency Depreciation

e0 e1 e1
where e0 = old currency value e1 = new currency value
Note: Resulting sign is always negative
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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


Currency Appreciation

e1 e0 e0

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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


EXAMPLE: dm Appreciation
If the dollar value of the dm goes from $0.64 (e0) to $0.68 (e1), then the dm has appreciated by

e1 e0 e0
= (.68 - .64)/ .64 = 6.25%
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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


EXAMPLE: US$ Depreciation
We use the first formula, (e0 - e1)/ e1 substituting (.64 - .68)/ .68 = - 5.88% which is the value of the US$ depreciation.

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Equilibrium Exchange Rates


D. FACTORS AFFECTING EXCHANGE RATES: 1. Inflation rates 2. Interest rates 3. GNP growth rates

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PART II.

THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS

I. FUNDAMENTALS OF CENTRAL BANK INTERVENTION A. Role of Exchange Rates:


LINKS BETWEEN THE DOMESTIC AND THE WORLD ECONOMY

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THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS


B. THE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES 1. Currency Appreciation: -domestic prices increase relative to foreign prices. - Exports: less price competitive - Imports: more attractive

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THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS


2. Currency Depreciation
- domestic prices fall relative to foreign prices. - Exports: more price competitive. - Imports: less attractive

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THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS


C. Foreign Exchange Market Intervention 1. Definition: the official purchases and sales of currencies through the central bank to influence the home exchange rate.
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THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS


2. Goal of Intervention: - to alter the demand for one currency by changing the supply of another.

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THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANKS


D. The Effects of Foreign Exchange Intervention 1. Effects of Intervention: - either ineffective or irresponsible 2. Lasting Effect: - If permanent, change results
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Part III. EXPECTATIONS


I. WHAT AFFECTS A CURRENCYS VALUE?

A. Current events
B. C. D. Current supply Demand flows Expectation of future exchange rate
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EXPECTATIONS
II. Role of Expectations : A. Currency = financial asset B. Exchange rate = simple relation of two financial assets
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EXPECTATIONS
III. Demand for Money and Currency Values: Asset Market Model A. Exchange rates reflect the

supply of and demand for foreign-currency denominated assets.


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EXPECTATIONS
B. Soundness of a Nations Economic Policies
- a nations currency tends to strengthen with sound economic policies.

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EXPECTATIONS
IV. EXPECTATIONS AND
CENTRAL BANK BEHAVIOR

- exchange rates also influenced by


expectations of central bank behavior.

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EXPECTATIONS
A. Central Bank Reputations B. Central Bank Independence
C. Currency Boards

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