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Objectives of Ethical challenges

Identify ethical issues in how the use of information technologies in business affects employment, individuality, working conditions, privacy, crime, health, and solutions to societal problems.

Ethical Responsibility
Employment Privacy


Security Ethics and Society


Individuality Working Conditions

What is Computer Crime ?

The unauthorized use, access, modification, and destruction of hardware, software, data, or network resources
Unauthorized release of information Unauthorized copying of software

Types of Computer Crime

Hacking Cyber Theft

Computer Viruses

Unauthorized Use at work



Computer Crime (cont..)

Cyber Theft

The obsessive use of computers, or the unauthorized access and use of networked computer systems Involves unauthorized network entry and the fraudulent alteration of computer databases Also called time and resource theft May range from doing private consulting or personal finances, to playing video games, to unauthorized use of the Internet on company networks Other forms of intellectual property covered by copyright laws
Music, Videos, Images, Articles, Books

Unauthorized use at work

Piracy of intellectual property Software Piracy


Computer viruses and worms

Unauthorized copying of software

A program that cannot work without being inserted into another program


A distinct program that can run unaided

Privacy Issues
Privacy issues are at the top of the list in regards to ethical use of information.
Loss of control Misuse of information Risk to physical privacy Risk of identity theft Unwanted intrusions into daily life

Privacy on the Internet

Privacy laws

Users of the Internet are highly visible and open to violations of privacy Unsecured with no real rules Cookies capture information about you every time you visit a site That information may be sold to third parties Attempt to enforce the privacy of computer-based files and communications Electronic Communications Privacy Act Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

Employment Challenges
Employment Lost Job Lost New jobs Opportunities Individuality have been created and productivity Working has Conditions increased, yet there has been a significant Computer Health Monitoring Issues reduction in some types of jobs as a result of IT.

Other Challenges
Health Issues
- Job stress - Muscle damage - Eye strain - Radiation exposure - Accidents


Working Conditions

Computer-based systems criticized as impersonal systems that dehumanize and depersonalize activities IT has eliminated many monotonous, obnoxious tasks, but has created others

Factors in the Workplace

Security Management

Goal of Security Management

Minimize errors, fraud, and losses in the e-business systems that interconnect businesses with their customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders

Security Measures
Encryption Fire Walls

Virus Defenses

Denial of Service Defenses

Monitor E-mail

Security Measures (cont..)

Security Codes Backup Files

Security Monitors

Biometric Security Controls

Security Measures (cont..)

Passwords, messages, files, and other data is transmitted in scrambled form and unscrambled for authorized users Involves using special mathematical algorithms to transform digital data in scrambled code Most widely used method uses a pair of public and private keys unique to each individual Serves as a gatekeeper system that protects a companys intranets and other computer networks from intrusion
Provides a filter and safe transfer point Screens all network traffic for proper passwords or other security codes


Denial of Service Defenses

These assaults depend on three layers of networked computer systems

Victims website Victims ISP Sites of zombie or slave computers

Defensive measures and security precautions must be taken at all three levels

Security Measures (cont..)

E-mail Monitoring
Spot checks just arent good enough anymore. The tide is turning toward systematic monitoring of corporate email traffic using content-monitoring software that scans for troublesome words that might compromise corporate security. Protection may accomplished through

Virus Defenses

Security codes

Centralized distribution and updating of antivirus software Outsourcing the virus protection responsibility to ISPs or to telecommunications or security management companies

Multilevel password system

Log onto the computer system, Gain access into the system, Access individual files

Security Measures (cont..)

Backup Files
Duplicate files of data or programs File retention measures Sometimes several generations of files are kept for control purposes Programs that monitor the use of computer systems and networks and protect them from unauthorized use, fraud, and destruction Measure physical traits that make each individual unique
Voice Fingerprints Hand geometry Signature dynamics Retina scanning Face recognition and Genetic pattern analysis

Security Monitors

Biometric Security

System Controls and Audits

Information System Controls
Methods and devices that attempt to ensure the accuracy, validity, and propriety of information system activities Designed to monitor and maintain the quality and security of input, processing, and storage activities Review and evaluate whether proper and adequate security measures and management policies have been developed and implemented Testing the integrity of an applications audit trail

Auditing Business Systems

Thank you!!!!!!!!!!
By : Rashmi Ankit Rohan Akash Sonali Sabanaz Thakurdas Yashdeep