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11. Coordination and Response Content 11.1 Nervous system 11.2 Receptors 11.3 Reflex action 11.

4 Hormones
Learning outcomes Candidates should be able to: (a) state that the nervous system - brain, spinal cord and nerves, serves to coordinate and regulate bodily functions; (b) identify, on diagrams of the central nervous system, the cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary gland and hypothalamus, medulla, spinal cord and nerves;

(c) describe the principal functions of the above structures in terms of

coordinating and regulating bodily functions; (d) describe the gross structure of the eye as seen in front view and in horizontal section; (e) state the principal functions of component parts of the eye in producing a focused image of near and distant objects on the retina; (f) describe the pupil reflex in response to bright and dim light; (g) outline the functions of sensory neurones, relay neurones and motor neurons; (h) discuss the function of the brain and spinal cord in producing a coordinated response as a result of a specific stimulus (reflex action); (i) define a hormone as a chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver; (j) state the role of the hormone adrenaline in boosting the blood glucose concentration and give examples of situations in which this may occur; (k) describe the signs (increased blood glucose concentration and glucose in urine) and treatment (administration of insulin) of diabetes mellitus.

Human Nervous System Central and Peripheral

A General Sense

Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Division


Sensory neurons carry messages toward the CNS from sensory receptors all over body. Sensory receptors act as energy transducers. A transducer is a device for converting a non-electrical signal into an electrical one. In this case, the electrical signal produced is the action potential of a nerve. Sensory receptors are in sense organs, such as eyes, ears, mouth, nose, skin and different regions of the brain respond to different signals.

Nervous System Cells


Called neurons Neurons have long axons that enable them to transmit signals. Many neurons together are called a nerve. Each nerve has a dorsal root (info into the CNS) and a ventral root (info out from CNS to body).

Anatomy of a Neuron
Cell body main part Dendrite receives action potential (stimulation) from other neurons Axon branches from cell body, where the action potential occurs Axon terminal end of an axon Myelin sheath lipid layer for protection over neurons that allows for increase in speed of signal transmission; made by Schwann cells Nodes of Ranvier gaps in myelin sheath along the axon, where most Na+ pumps are located Synaptic Cleft gap between neurons; between the axon terminal of 1 neuron and the dendrite of a 2nd neuron

The Patellar Reflex

Central Nervous System (CNS)


BRAIN About 1.4 kg, 2% of body weight About 100 billion neurons 12 pairs of cranial nerves are connected to the human brain
Example: Pupil reflex in response to bright light, to avoid damage to retina. Nerves that control this reflex are connected to the brain. Others: blinking, Hering-Breuer reflex

My brain is inside my head. It makes my body work. It makes me think and feel. It keeps my heart and lungs working. The brain makes sure our hearts keep beating and our lungs keep working without us having to think about it. Part of the brain makes our muscles work. The biggest part of the brain makes us think, see, hear, feel and taste.

There are five important parts of the brain: Cerebrum, the biggest and heaviest part. It is the thinking part of the brain. Cerebellum at the back of the brain below the cerebrum, controls balance, movement and coordination. Brain stem ( medulla oblongata), connecting the brain and the spinal cord, controls all the body functions like breathing and circulating blood. Pituitary (pit-you-it-airy) gland, is tiny but produces and releases hormones, which help you grow and help change children into adults. Hypothalmus (high-poe-thal-uh-muss) regulates the body temperature.

We each have a backbone, called a spine. Inside it there is a spinal cord. The spinal cord joins the brain at the top of our neck.
All through our body there are nerves which connect to the spinal cord. This is called the nervous system.Messages from the nerves travel to the spinal cord, which sends them to the brain. Neurons are long, wiry cells that carry electrical messages through the nervous system and the brain.

The messages come from eyes, skin, nose, ears, tongue. The brain works out what the messages are so we know what we are seeing, touching , hearing and tasting, and if something hurts or feels good.
The brain at birth At birth a baby's brain contains 100 billion neurons. As the baby experiences things and learns, the brain continues to develop.

Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various endocrine glands and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effect.

Hormones travel via the bloodstream to target cells


The endocrine system broadcasts its hormonal messages to essentially all cells by secretion into blood and extracellular fluid. Like a radio broadcast, it requires a receiver to get the message - in the case of endocrine messages, cells must bear a receptor for the hormone being broadcast in order to respond.

Regulation of hormone secretion


Sensing and signaling: a biological need is sensed, the endocrine system sends out a signal to a target cell whose action addresses the biological need. Key features of this stimulus response system are:
receipt of stimulus synthesis and secretion of hormone delivery of hormone to target cell evoking target cell response degradation of hormone

ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Endocrine vs. exocrine Hormone Endocrine gland
hypothalamus

pineal gland pituitary gland thyroid gland thymus gland

adrenal glands

pancreas (islets)

ovaries (female)

testes (male)

ADRENAL CORTEX (ZONA GLOMERULOSA)

Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland , it is also called Epinephrine. Adrenal Gland is either of the two small dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above each kidney. Adrenaline helps the body to adjust to sudden stress. When a person becomes angry or frightened, the adrenal gland release adrenaline into the blood. The hormone causes changes in the body to make it more efficient for "fight or flight". Adrenaline increases the strength and rate of the heartbeat and raises the blood pressure. It also speeds up the conversion of glycogen into glucose, which provide energy to the muscles.

Adrenal Medulla Adrenalin Prepares the body for "fright, fight or flight" and has many effects: Action of heart increased. Rate and depth of breathing increased. Metabolic rate increased. Force of muscular contraction improves.

Onset of muscular fatigue delayed.

Blood supply to the bladder and intestines reduced, their muscular walls relax, the sphincters contract.

Noradrenalin Similar effects to adrenalin:

Constriction of small blood vessels leading to increase in blood pressure.

Increased blood flow through the coronary arteries and slowing of heart rate.

Increase in rate and depth of breathing.

Relaxation of the smooth muscle in the intestinal walls.

Adrenal Cortex Corticosteroids Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone)

Utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein by the body.


Normal response to stress. Anti-inflammatory effects. Hypersecretion of cortisol results in Cushings Syndrome. Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone) Regulation of salt and water balance.

Hypersecretion of Alderosterone decreases the potassium in the body (affecting nerve impulse transmission and leading to muscular paralysis).

Negative feed back: A feedback in which the system responds in an opposite direction to the perturbation It is a self-regulatory system in which it feeds back to the input a part of a systems output so as to reverse the direction of change of the output. The process reduces the output of a system in order to stabilize or re-establish internal equilibrium. There are several negative feedback in biological system to regulate and maintain homeostasis. Some of which are the regulation of hormone synthesis, blood glucose levels, body temperature, and baroflex in blood pressure.

Negative Feedback Loop Blood glucose in the bloodstream drops Cells require glucose to meet the energy demand Body detects this change in the variable with a particular receptor designed for this function These receptors send impulses/signals to Integrating Center The IC receives inputs from the sensors/receptors, processes the info, then sends a effector signal Effector signals travel to their target tissue and initiate a corrective response In this case, the corrective response is the secretion of more glucose into the bloodstream IC

NERVOUS SYSTEM VS. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


Together, the nervous and endocrine systems coordinate functions of all body systems. NERVOUS
neurotransmitters muscle contractions and glandular secretions acts in milliseconds

ENDOCRINE
hormones metabolic activities of cells

acts in seconds to minutes to hours to days to months long-lasting effects

brief effects

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