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PHY 121

BTF-09-041

Diffraction.

Fresnels Assumption.
Rectilinear Propagation of Light.

DISCOVERY
Discovered by Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618-1663). Coined the word diffraction.

Latin word diffiringere meaning to break into pieces.


Normally a deviation from the rectilinear propagation .
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1.DIFFRACTION

Apparent bending of waves around the edges of obstacles . Characteristic property waves . Occurs with all types of waves.

Diffraction phenomena
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Diffraction pattern of disc


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Diffraction pattern of horizontal slit

Diffraction pattern circular aperture


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The Diffraction Grating


Diffraction grating is an arrangement consisting of a large number of parallel, closely spaced slits.

Fraunhoffer & Fresnel Diffraction


Far

Fraunhoffer pattern

Fresnel pattern

Near
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2.
Q X

Y R
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To obtain the resultant effect at a point P on the screen, Fresnel assumed that ;
(1)A wavefront can be divided into a large number of strips or zones called Fresnels zones. (2)The resultant effect at any point on the screen depends on combined effect of all the secondary waves. (3)Resultant effect at a point also depends on its distances from the particular zones.

(4)Obliquity with reference to the zone and the point.


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Due to the wave front at C, the effect will be maximum at O and decreases with increasing obliquity. It is maximum in a direction radially outwards from C and it decreases in the opposite direction. Effect at a point due to the obliquity factor is proportional to (1+cos ) where POC=.

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Considering the elementary wave front at C; (1)At the point O, since =0; and cos =1; hence the resultant effect at O is maximum. (2)At a direction tangential to primary wave front at C i.e., along CQ, since =90; and cos =0; one half of the resultant at O. (3)At a direction along CS , since =180; and cos =-1; resultant is zero.
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The property of secondary wave front eliminates one of the main drawbacks in the Huygens principle.

As secondary wave front spread outs in all directions from primary wave front as in case of Huygens principle so back wave propagation is a tedious method of calculation.
But in Fresnels assumptions, there is no back wave propagation and the rear wave amplitude is zero.
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3.Rectilinear Propagation of Light


B X

b x
m3

b+3/2

b+2/2
b+/2

m2 m1

o
b

m1
m2 m3
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m4
m3 m2 m1

Fresnels half period zones (or) half period elements

Phase difference (or)


Path difference /2
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OP=b; OM1=r1; OM2=r2; OM3=r3; etc,..


M1P=b+/2; M2P=b+2/2; M3P=b+3/2; etc, Area of 1st half period zone is (OM1)=[M1P - OP]

=[(b+/2)- b]
=[b+/4] =b (app.,)..(1) ( is small, is negligible) Radius of 1st half period zone r1=OM1=b..(2)

Radius of 2nd half period zone OM2=r2=2b (app.,)(3)


Area of 2nd half period zone =[OM2-OM1] =[2b-b]=b(4)
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m1

m3

m2=(m1+m3)/2
Resultant amplitude (A)= m1-m2+m3-m4+..+mn (if n is odd) A=m1-m2+m3-m4+..-mn
m2

m5 m7

m8 m4 m6

(if n is even)
A=m1/2+[m1/2-m2+m3/2]+[m3/2-m4+m5/2]+.

A=m1/2+mn/2. If n is odd
A=m1/2+mn-1/2-mn if n is even
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Number of half zones are infinite then, n; then amplitudes of mn, mn-1 tends to be zero; A=m1/2+mn-1/2-mn A=m1/2+0+0+.. then A=m1/2 ; Im1/4; (I A )

Where, I is intensity at point P due to the whole wave front ABCD.


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If the size of the obstacles is comparable to the wavelength of light , it is possible to observe the illumination in the region of geometrical shadow also. Thus, Rectilinear Propagation of light is only approximately true.

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PRESENTED BY : A.Vigneshwaran

ROLL NO.

: BTF-09-041
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