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Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data for obtaining the information.

Data collection is one of the important aspects for any type of research. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.

The issue is not: How do we collect data? It is: How do we obtain useful data?

what instrument will you use?

what you study?


How will you administer the data collection?

what information will you collect?


QUALITATIVE METHOD A method used to involves finding out what people think, and how they feel, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers The purpose: to explain and predict, to test, confirm and validate theory.

QUANTITATIVE METHOD refers to random sampling and structured data collection instrument to suit a variety of experience to the category response set. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and the general public. variables used to obtain accurate results The purpose: to describe and explain, to explore and interpret, and to build the theory

OVSERVATION is way gathering data by watching behavior, event or nothing physical characteristic in their natural setting.

INTERVIEW These often involve face-to-face interactions between researcher and participant. Is a structured interview, the researcher asks a standard set of questions.(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)

DOCUMENT REVIEW obtain information by reviewing written documents that have been made by others



All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding -Donald Campbell

The AIM is complete, detailed description

There no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0 -Fred Kerlinger

The AIM is to classify features, count them and construct statistical models, in an attempt to explain what is observed

Recommended during EARLIER phases of research projects

The design emerges as the study unfolds. Researcher is the data gathering instrument.

Recommended during LATTER phases of research projects

All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. Objective - seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter.

Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Subjective - individuals interpretation of events is important ,e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc. Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized. Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter.

Process > Outcome Of Product

Qualitative Researcher

Interested in meaning how people make sense of their lives, experiences and their structure of world

Primary instrument for data collection and analysis (human instrument)

Involved Fieldwork physically goes to the people, site, setting or institution

The Foundations and Pillars Of The Qualitative Thinking

Research Topics, Problems and Questions (Hypotheses)

Qualitative Research Design

Process Of Qualitative Research Data Collection Preparation Process Analyzing Process

Strong Focus On Description

Subject First (Natural & Daily Environment)

Strong Focus On Interpretation

The Result Should Be Understood As A Process Of Generalization

Data Collection

Collecting information that relates to your enquiry; information that you believe will respond to your research question

Preparation Process

Separating and gathering the information from working with it to find a response is a key part of structure and discipline of research process

Analyzing Process

The process of drawing responses out of date, or finding them in the data.

Observation Interview Document Analysis Questionnaires

Recording ideas and facts that you observe in class to help you remember and use them later






Become an active part of the listening and learning process Create a history of your course content Have a written record to view or study later
Reinforce what is communicated verbally

I. Preparing to Listen Effectively

Read assignments before class Bring appropriate materials

Pay attention

II. Possible Listening Barriers

Hunger Climate

Distracting thoughts Stress

What are Field Notes?

Written record of what is observed, impression, reactions & hypothesis about what has happened. Refers to various recorded by scientists during or after observation of a specific phenomenon they are studying. transcribed notes or the written account derived from data collected during observations and interviews. styles of field notes: descriptive & reflective should be written as soon as possible!!!

What to include in field notes:

Where you observe Who was there or not there What happened What events happened What events took place Use descriptive adjectives Use action verbs Avoid making judgments about what you see Be as specific as you can!

Characteristics of field notes

1. Accurate. 2. Detailed 3. Extensive to permit reader to understand the situation described. 4. Data may provide an overview of a culture or setting. 5. The observer should do more than simply record a setting.

Guidelines for descriptive of field notes

1. Describe the setting. 2. Describe the activities that took place in that setting. 3. Describe the people who took part in the activities and their roles in the activities. 4. Describe the meaning of what was observed. 5. Record exact quotes or close approximations of comments that relate directly to the observation activity. 6. Describe any impact you might have had on the situation you observed.

Guidelines for reflective part of field notes

1. Include sentences and paragraphs that are subjective.. 2. Emphasizes ideas, hunches, impressions, etc. 3. Includes unanswered questions that have arisen from reflecting on the observation data as well as ideas for future action. 4. Clarify points and correct mistakes and misunderstandings in other parts of field notes. 5. Include insights or speculation about what you are observing.


observations and thoughts. very detailed manner so that others can know exactly when, where, and under what conditions your work was done. areas in the future to verify findings and observe changes over time.

Format of field notes

1. Save content part of field notes and reflective part of field notes in separate files. 2. Use two columns. The column on the right contains the content portion of field notes, with reflective comments relating to particular parts of the content part, written in the left column. 3. Use wide left margin.