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Types of Plate Boundaries


Two plates moving apart Volcanoes and Earthquakes Mid Atlantic Ridge


Two plates moving towards each other Volcanoes and Earthquakes Subduction of the denser plate forms a sea trench Andes

Click to edit Master subtitle style towards continental plates) (continental Collision
Fold mountains Earthquakes Himalayas

Two plates moving towards each other

Conservative 4/15/12

Two plates moving past each other Earthquakes (movement is not smooth Stick-Slip process) San Andreas Fault

Types of Volcanoes
Very explosive Constructed at subduction zones (destructive plate boundaries) Gently sloping sides Steep sides Hawaii Mauna Loa Fluid flowing magma (flows long distances on the earth)

Mount Fuji

Viscous (not runny) magma which clogs at the top building up pressure 4/15/12 causing a big explosion

Shiel d
Can be produced at Hot Spots

Case Studys: Volcanoes

Sakurajima Japan (Developed World)

Montserrat Caribbean (Developing World)


On a destructive plate boundary On a destructive plate boundary Composite volcano = very dangerous Composite volcano = very dangerous and and explosive explosive


Volcanic bombs damaged infrastructure Heavy volcanic ash covered everything Electricity was temporarily disrupted

Airport closed Farmland destroyed Tourist industry suffered (little visitors) Half the population have left the island

Short term relief

Long term planning

Short term relief

Long term planning

Warning systems in Clearly signposted Tiltmeters to evacuation routes detect the volcano place for quick Regular swelling evacuation Concrete shelters Temporary aid evacuation drills to protect against (shelter, food) volcano bombs and Emergency food for ash livestock Reponses Aircraft to measure the amount of gas the volcano gives on (to predict an eruption)

MVO (Montserrat Volcano Observatory) set up to monitor the volcano Building infrastructure and buildings to withstand the effects Permanent evacuation of the area around the volcano


Case Studys: Earthquakes

Los Angeles (Developed World) Cause
On a conservative plate boundary 6.7 on the Richter Scale

Kashmir (Developing World)

On a collision plate boundary 7.6 on the Richter Scale


Infrastructure damaged Thousands of people left homeless Broken gas mains caught fire Intense heat caused fires to break out Landslides as a result of the earthquake
Short term relief

Many people died Millions left homeless Amount need to rebuild property $440 million Landslides because of the earthquake caused more damage

Long term planning

Short term relief

Long term planning


Buildings made to Temporary housing and withstand future shelter earthquakes Cross bracing to stop Food and water floors collapsing Deep foundations supplies to prevent collapse Contact with Double glazed family and friends windows to stop

Better built housing to Camps set up to offer help for the withstand earthquakes homeless Lightweight thatched Food and water roof supplies Concrete rings tying the wall to the Aid for those in need


foundation Simple steel rod foundation


Quick evacuation plans Quicker response from emergency services

Better health care and emergency services More aid for the homeless

Natural Causes of Climate Change

Volcanic eruptions Sunspot activity

Very large and explosive eruptions change earths climate Ash and gas spread around the stratosphere and stop sunlight reaching the earths surface cools the earth

Black areas on the suns surface Spots mean greater activity and more solar energy being sent towards the earth warmer.

Orbital changes

Changes in the way the earth orbits the sun from circular to ellipse alters the amount of sunlight the earth receives. The earths axis also moves and wobbles about affecting how much sunlight is received


The Little Ice Age

Economic Positive English fisherman found new species of fish in their waters (herring) Increase in deep sea fishing helped build maritime population

Economic Negative



Farming Wheat and oats did not ripen Hillside farms were abandoned Change crops from wheat to potatoes

Cool, wet Beech tress Increased grain prices summers led toreplaced by Lower wine outbreaks of oak then by production St. Anthonys pine Cod fishing Spring and Fire Illness Malaria in decreased summers saw Growing England cold wet glaciers closed Great famine weather Valley glaciers gold mines for 8 years Farmsteads Farmers dies grew in the destroyed of hunger Alps resulted in less tax


Case Study: UK affected by Likely to be warmer Climate levels rise Change Whats likely Sea

to happen to More extreme weather the UK Social Impacts

Economic Impacts

Environmental Impacts
New species of plants and animals will be introduced Some plants and animals could face extinction Major erosion with rising sea levels

Tourism increase boosts Fewer deaths from Impacts illnesss like the flu the economy Rising temperatures Heating bills will fall in the winter Green=Benef could mean more Increasing cost of helping people on beaches it More illnesses such as climate refugees Purple=Cost sunstroke and cancer Scotlands skiing resorts Infrastructure melts could disappear away

We can:
o o o

Responses Kyoto Protocol:

Switch to green energy (wind, tidal, solar etc.) Recycle more Use public transport more International agreement to cut CO2 emissions We should spend 2% of our GDP on reducing pollution to stop global warming decreasing out GDP by 20%

Stern Review:


Case Study: Bangladesh affected by Climate Change Sea levels rise

Whats likely to happen to Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a low lying country so much of it would be flooded

Social Impacts

Economic Impacts

Environmental Impacts


Destruction of schools Farmers are likely to loose Water ruined by salt levels = less educated their crops reducing the increasing in the water also children in the future amount of income for destroying rice paddies Extreme weather Bangladesh as well as the Land flooded especially means families are amount of money earnt by costal areas Increased cyclone activity driven out of their the farmers homes People are not prepared for the effects of floods as they are getting worse

UK gave Bangladesh 75 million Money spent on: o Protecting schools building them on raised stilts so flood water Responses passes safely below the buildings Introducing crops which are more tolerant to salt



Factors affecting the location of Biomes

Hotter at the equator, suns rays hit at 90, concentrating the rays Colder at the poles, suns rays hit at greater angles, less concentrated rays
*Lack of heat and light limits vegetation growth*


More rainfall near coasts, water is evaporated and then falls as rain on land Low pressure where air is rising = rainfall e.g. at the equator High pressure where the air is sinking = no rain e.g. at the poles As height increases temperature decreases and rainfall increases

Altitude The Sea Prevailing Winds

Keeps places near the coast cooler in summer and warmer in winter [CONTINENTALITY]

Winds Winds Winds Winds

across land = dry across water = wet from the poles = cold from the equator = warm


How humans are threatening the Biosphere Over harvesting/fishing/hunting

e.g. Krill can lead to the extinction of some species

More CO2 released contributing to Global Warming Increased soil erosion, soil runs into rivers increasing the amount of sediment in them, ruining habitats for some fish

Changing land use

From forests to farm land

Tourism and Recreation

Scuba Diving, Safaris damaged the environment and disturb surrounding wildlife

Introducing alien species

More competition for land, food, shelter, mates etc.

Of air, water from industry, burning fossil fuels etc.

Disrupts natural habitats and produces pollution in the process 4/15/12

Case Study: Human Threats to the Amazon- Deforestation


CITES District To conserve and protect Protects land by law Convention on Prohibits the exploitation International Trade in wetland areas (deltas, marshs, swamps, of resources Endangered Species of Land used for: lagoons) Wild Fauna and Flora Supports 20, 000 water Human recreation (CITES) Animal and 150 nations work birds environment Supports native fish together to ensure we protection Monitors and regulates dont exploit endangered Restriction of animal populations and species for trading development human actions in these purposes Attracts tourists areas (some parks have toHelps stop ivory trade Britain has the highest pay to enter) = and the trade of crocodile improves the number of sites, 168 skins economy while In some places it has getting people to been successful as become more exploitation has reduced aware of the
o o o o

Case Studys: Global Management to Protect Biomes Parks e.g. Lake National

biodiversity Environmental Stewardship - supports environmentally beneficial management practices e.g. encouraging farmers to keep their hedgerows for habitats for animals, 4/15/12 encouraging in field trees as they are important habitats for animals

Case Study: Water Shortages in the Sahel

Surrounding countries are: Nigeria Developing Countries Ethiopia Sudan


Human Rapidly growing populations = higher demand for water than supply

Hunger, thirst and malnutrition Desertification Nomads follow the water supplies Big businesses use good land = not enough land left for local farmers Semi-arid lands are already fragile and cant cope with water stress

2/3 of people live in rural areas People depend on agriculture and natural resources for income Lots of air and water pollution Decline in soil and soil fertility

Physical Rainfall fallen by 30% The wet season is short (1-2 months a year) Heavy rainfall leads to increased surface run off = flooding


Case Study: River Rhine Water Pollution


Sources of pollution in rivers (reducing Fertilisers being washed into water quality): Sewage rivers

Case Study: Large Scale Water Management Chinas 3 Gorges Dam

Was built to reduce its dependence on coal seeing HEP (Hydro Electric Power) as a clean alternative to support its rapid industrialisation Advantages Disadvantages Huge quantities of power created Pollution increase from flooding of reducing dependence on coal abandoned factories and mines Provides water to more areas of China Important archaeological and heritage Prevents seasonal flooding sites will be lost Provides people with jobs = increases Many people will have to move and income = increasing standard of living 100, 000 of hectares of land will be Water security for the growing flooded Yangtze tributaries will deteriorate populations of cities Tourism and recreation (sailing etc) on effecting the salt levels in the river the dam increases Chinas economy

How Human use of Stores and Flows can reduce Water Supply Valley, South England Thames [OVERABSTRACTION]
Water taken for domestic, industrial and agricultural use More demand for the groundwater supplies = falling water table Tributaries dry up Over land stores either dried up or reduced significantly 4/15/12

Case Study: Small Scale Water Intermediate Technology schemes which are and meet Management me maintained sustainable the local the needs of local people, they can and run by
communities without the help of others Intermediate Technology Located Example Description
Draws water up from the ground 15 families per pump Communities take responsibility of the hand pump and are responsible for its upkeep

Water Pump Tanzania

Rainwater storage tanks (pumpkin tanks) India

Allows water harvesting from roof gutters Used for farming Local materials used so once broken they are easy to repair Looked after by locals

Tubewells Bangladesh 4/15/12

Hand dug small wells, drilled using hand powered methods Used when the water table is low They can be built quickly and cheaply People are no longer continually ill People dont have to walk long distances People are stating out move out of poverty

Changes in a river from Source to Mouth

Gradient Decreases Width Increases Depth Increases



Discharge River Valley Steep Sides Upper Course Start of a flood plain, sides quite steep Middle Course

Increases Wide flat flood plain, gentle sides Lower Course


River Processes
Process of Erosion

Processes of Transportation

Banging together of rocks and stones

Chemicals carried along in the water (cant see them)


Rocks such as limestone dissolved in acid rainwater

Suspension Fine particles carried by the

rivers current


Rocks bash against the river Traction bed and banks

Large stones dragged along the river bed

Hydraulic Water gets stuck in small Erosion cracks in the river bed and

Salutation Smaller stones are picked

banks eventually cracking the rock

up and dropped = like a skipping motion


Flood Hydrograph
Short Lag Time (water quickly reaches river): Urbanisation Long Lag Time (water slowly Deforestation reaches river): Impermeable rock Afforestation Steep Landscapes Permeable rock

The amount of water in the river that comes from the storm

Rising limb: as water reaches the river the discharge increases *Lots of surface run of increases this*

Falling limb: when rainwater is still reaching the river but in smaller and smaller quantities *After periods of rainfall, left over water infiltrates/runs off into the river*


River Landforms
Interlocking Spur Waterfall Course
3 2 4

River does not have enough energy to erode protruding land so winds around it

Erosion (abrasion, hydraulic action) of softer rock underneath, undercuts hard rock above = plunge pool Less resistant is eroded leaving an overhanging ledge which collapses

Middle Course

Fast current on outside of the river laterally erodes Eroded material gets dumped on the inside of the river where the current is slowest Neck gets narrower as the meander loop increases

Oxbow Lakes Floodplain

Lower Course

Made from meanders Meander neck eventually joins cutting off the meander which was made previously Leaves and oxbow lake behind

Formed by lateral erosion When the river floods water spread out of the river valley depositing some of its load in the process

Levees 4/15/12

A natural embankment of sediment from when the river floods Banks build up to help to contain water in the river valley

Case Study: Flooding in Sheffield

Causes Prolonged rainfall (90mm 15th June/100mm 25th June) Soil was saturated = several days of Hillsborough prolonged rainfall = increased surface run off Confluence on several rivers (2x the amount of water in the river channel) City Centre Physical landscape = steep = quick surface run off Urbanisation = more impermeable surfaces = less infiltration Blocked drains and flood defences = reached their capacity and couldnt take any more water

Football stadium flooded 43% houses on an estate flooded Health risks from raw sewage in flood water People moved into caravans

Transport links cancelled, 900 people spent the night in offices 20 people airlifted to safety

Lower Don Valley

Industrys badly affected 15 million damage to Clarkson Osborn Tool Company Meadowhill shopping centre damaged and closed for weeks

Environmental Human 4/15/12

Ulley Reservoir Area

Rainfall damaged dam, fears it might collapse Some people re-housed for nearly a year M1 closed for two days in fear the dam might burst 700 people evacuated Emergency shelter in primary

Case Studys: Hard and Soft Hard Engineering (use Soft Engineering (use of ecological Engineering of solid structures) principles)
Channelisation Flood relief channels Dams Embankments Flood relief channels Can take excess water ensure river does not flood its banks Sheffield Flood storage reservoirs River Large quantities of Rivelin & water used for River recreation as well Loxley Canalisation Lined with concrete = speed up river flow Afforestation Flood warning systems Land use zoning
All 3 have negative aspects: High costs Ruins habitats Look horrible

Darlington River 4/15/12 Skerne

River restored to natural meandering state Wetland habitats along river banks to reduce flooding impacts Meander banks enforced to reduce lateral erosion

The Value and Threats to Value Threa Coral Reefs

s Shoreline
protection: From tsunamis Fishing: erosion and wave 25% commercia l fish come from coral reefs Other Sources: Medicine Decorative Tourism: objects gets half Caribbean their income from Education & tourists 4/15/12 Research:



Boat anchors damage reefs Recreational fishing Sewage pollution Snorkelling etc. People fishing to supply their families with food Trawler nets collect young fish disrupting food chain Selective fishing disrupts the food chain Rising temperatures stresss the coral Bleaches the coral Hurricanes produce huge waves damaging the coral reefs Most coral reefs located around developing countries which grown 3% in size every year People migrate to costal areas for jobs in tourism and fishing Most of the time coral is the only building material available, the mining for the products ruins reefs


Global Warming

Population Growth


Food Web Disruption and The Effect of Climate Change on Eco Systems The Effect of Climate
Food Web Disruption Siltation
deposition of silt in rivers and oceans
Melting of glaciers Coral Reef Islands

Increased amount of fresh water reaching rivers = oceans become less salty and more dense changing the oceans currents and distribution of heat Alters ocean food webs Maldives: Island could be submerged completely


Coral reefs become buried in silt restricting sunlight = plants cant photosynthesise Disrupts food chain = plants starting point for all animals Eutrophication ecosystems become more fertile resultantly loosing oxygen Species suffocate Run off fertilisers and sewage = growth of algae Overfishing taking 4/15/12 to many fish

Nile: Mega Deltas Risk of storm surges Contaminated fresh water Bangladesh: Environmenta People staring to move away as homes are l Refugees submerged by rising sea levels

Ports Developed Countries

Many countries economys will be affected Trading would be more difficult and come places would not be able to operate North America: Increased costal erosion and flooding Water sanitation systems (in Mumbai) put under strain

Africa: Developing Increased costal erosion threatens places e.g. Egypt Countries People living in Shanty towns at risk of disease

LEDC Case Study: St Lucia (Soufriere) Marine Eco System Management

Why Management was needed
Rising populations = increased rubbish, pollution and siltation ( from cutting down of trees) More tourists = more snorkelling, diving etc. (tourism provides more than half St Lucias income) 20% people have no jobs, using mangroves as a source of income


Governments and Fisherman (laws put in place by the government might not be beneficial for the fishermen) Dive Business's and Government (laws put in place by the government might not help the diving businesss make a living) 1992 Soufriere Marine Management Area (SMMA) Was developed through the consultation of local people (Town council, hotel owners, dive businesses, fishermen and mariner managers)

Management Strategy

Successes Outcomes 4/15/12

Local people trained and educated to manage the scheme = more jobs Numbers, sizes and diversity of fish stock have increased Many stakeholders involved = ensures all interests are met

Getting all the stakeholders to agree (fishermen did not like the marine establishment) Rangers monitoring the area need to be equipped = high costs, the area does not have the money for it

MEDC Case Study: The Firth of Clyde (Scotland) Marine Eco System Tourism: UKs largest yachting centre, Management secondto tourism as a source of used for snorkelling and kayaking (people turn income)
Military Testing: deeply eroded sea floors perfect for testing nuclear submarines (accident would ruin the ecosystem)

Threats facing Fishing: important source of local income, over fishing of cod = drastic decline the Ecosystemin numbers For Conflicts
Fishing for fun is decreasing as fish stocks are decreasing Amateur Fisher Wildlife will be restored Teacher

People will loose their jobs, consequently their source of income Scallop Fisherman Attracts more tourists making the area busy Pensioner

Management Strategies

No Take Zone: zones where taking fish is not allowed (replenishes fish stocks) Livelihood of Local People: sustain the livelihood of people who are dependant on fishing and tourism

Costal and Marine Parks (CMP): costal and marine activities managed in sustainable ways = long term economic benefit whilst being sustainable. Closer monitoring of commercial activities (sea bed drilling, fishing) What does the Scottish Marine Bill: new laws managing future conflicts in Scottish Waters. future hold Using renewable energy sources. Protecting eco systems from pollution


Global Management Strategies of the 1994 40% the Oceans prevent nations taking unfair Placedstatesofwithinocean under adjacent To costal 12 miles from
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
shares of the oceans wealth Tackles: Fisheries, navigation, scientific research, pollution coastlines Reduced pollution by addressing (helped marine ecosystems recover from the impacts of pollution): Ship Mining Ocean dumping

Marine Protected Areas

2002 World Summit of Sustainable Protects our oceans by: Limiting development Development Regulating fishing gear used 10% oceans are protected by it Aims to conserve biodiversity in out Catch limits and catch bans oceans It ensures (do not take place and fish populations stay at a sustainable level): Over fishing Harmful fishing techniques Blast fishing

Four Stages of Successful Participatory Planning 4/15/12

Participatory Planning: all stakeholders are involved in the scheme

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