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# Chapter 4 INVERTERS (DC-AC)

Introduction
Definition:
Convert DC power to AC power at a desired output voltage or current and frequency.

## General block diagram of inverter

Introduction (cont)

Static circuits no moving parts Converts DC to AC power by switching the DC input voltage in a pre-determined sequence to generate AC voltage Output waveform is not purely sinusoidal

Introduction (cont)
Classified according to:
number of phases use of power semiconductor devices commutation principles output waveforms

Introduction (cont)
Application:
Induction motor drives, traction, standby power supplies, and uninterruptible ac power supplies (UPS).

Introduction (cont)
3 types of inverter:
(1) Voltage source inverter (VSI)
DC voltage source is constant. A large capacitor across DC source to stable the output. Output current is dependent on the load. Widely used in industry

Introduction (cont)
(2) Current source inverter (CSI)
Current source is DC power supply. Output current is defined, based on the gating pattern. Output voltage is dependent on the load.

Introduction (cont)
(3) Current regulated inverter
The current regulated inverters are becoming popular especially for speed control of AC motors. In this category, there is a current sensing circuit that senses the actual value of the current at every instant.

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter

Basic principles:
State 1 2 3 4 S1 + + S2 + + Output +E 0 -E 0

Uses 2 semiconductor for switches. S1 and S2 connect and disconnect alternately. The combination of 2 switches provides the 4 states.

Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont) State 1 & 3 repeated alternately will produced squareWave AC voltage.

Half-Bridge VSI

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont)

If S1 or S2 are closed (TON), the half-wave average output voltage, VO(ave);

## TON TON VO ( ave ) = E = 2E = 2 Ed T /2 T where; TON d = duty cycle = T

The RMS output voltage, VO(RMS);

VO ( RMS ) = 2d E

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont)

For the resistive load, the half-wave average output current, IO(ave);

I O ( ave ) =

VO ( ave ) R

The average current in the switch, iS1 and iS2 = IO(ave) / 2 The average power absorbed by the load, PL;

PL =

2 O ( RMS )

2dE = R

Example 4.1
A single-phase half-wave inverter with E=100V, d=50% and resistive load, R=1. (i) Find the average load current. (ii) Find the average switch current. (iii) find the power delivered to the load.

Solution 4.1
(i) VO(ave) = 2Ed = 2(100)(0.5) = 100V IO(ave) = VO(ave) / R = 100/1 = 100A Average current in the switch = IO(ave)/2 =100/2 = 50A

(ii)

## VO ( RMS ) = 2d E = ( 2 * 0.5 )(100) = 100V

PL = V

2 O ( RMS )

/ R = 100 / 1 = 10kW
2

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont)

In time domain, the total RMS value of the load output voltage, The instantaneous output voltage is;

Example 4.2

Solution 4.2

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont)

Frequency of AC output;

1 f = T

2 methods to make the AC output voltage closer to sinusoid: (i) use a filter circuit on the output side but increase the power losses, cost and weight. (ii) use a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) as a switching scheme to modify the shape of output voltage.

## Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter (cont)

In practical, a dead time as shown below is required in S1 and S2 to avoid shoot-through faults.

Full-Bridge VSI

Example 4.3

Solution 4.3

Example 4.4

Solution 4.4

## Solution 4.4 (cont)

Three-Phase Inverter

## Total Harmonic Distortion

Spectrum of square-wave

Example 4.5

Solution 4.5

Sekian.