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The APA Style Paper

Format and Documentation of a Research Study Click to edit Master subtitle style

Copyright 2003

The following fictional manuscript illustrates key features of a research paper reporting the results of an experiment as described by the American Psychological Association (APA) in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). The APA Publication Manual is not intended to apply in every case to the undergraduate paper. Students should always follow the particular options or standards designated by the professor of their specific course.
This material was prepared by Elizabeth F. Henderson, Thomas A. Looney, and Krista N. Gilley. (Copyright 2003) We would like to thank Candace Todd and Elizabeth Farnsworth for their comments on an earlier draft. We welcome all comments. We are particularly interested in identifying errors and suggestions regarding how to improve clarity. (Send comments to Elizabeth F. Henderson, <henderson@lynchburg.edu>)

This PowerPoint presentation is designed to illustrate the basic elements of the APA style and guide one through the process of writing a research paper in this style. First you will see a diagram of the title page, the first page of your paper. This will be followed by an example of the title page to an APA style paper of a fictitious experiment. When you click on the mouse there will be notes about specific items on each page. Watch for the cartoon mouse that appears next to the component to which the note applies. When there is no cartoon mouse, that will be a general note that applies to the entire paper.
To get a paper copy of the slide presentation with the pop-up notes, print slides 1 through 20. On the Printer options box, click next to slides in the Print range section and type 1-20. From the Print what pull down menu, select Notes Pages

The Title Page

Page Header (5 spaces) Page number (1 inch margin)

right justified

Running Head:

c o m pl All pages are numbered Use 1 margins on font et Keep a standard typeall in sequence beginning such as Times the e sides throughoutNew with the titlepoint size Roman, 12 page ti paper. use bold font for 4Do not throughout tl (excludes figure page). emphasis. e

Title Name Institution

These items are

Title Page Example

Schedule-Induced Attack Running Head: SCHEDULE-INDUCED ATTACK IN MOUSE TRAPS Schedule-Induced Attack in Mouse Traps: Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects Michael Maus Lunchburg College 1

The name(s) of the author(s) is/are given, followed by by Header: The first 2 or the variables and title, TheRunning Head: This is an abbreviated title, followedthe title should indicate 3 words from the name leftthen the of number, Write out 1 from the 5 spaces, at the top flush subjects/participants pagethe page. flush right,the words edge. of the institution at as shown. research Running Head: which the The abbreviated title studied (in this sample, the independent was done. is written Doublecapital this in all space letters. variable=schedule, section.

Schedule-Induced Attack Abstract

Although aggression has repeatedly been observed in mousetraps in the field , the variable controlling the aggression has not previously been identified. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether aggression in mouse traps could be induced by an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. The necessary condition for concluding that attack is schedule-induced is that more attack occurs during exposure to an intermittent schedule of reinforcement (e.g. food) than in its absence.

TheThe abstract has itsthroughout in the of the manuscriptsummary past tense is used is a page most paper. The abstract ownto be included on this page. brief, 100-150-word No other information results. However, the present tense includingThis section andis ones that follow are double-spaced. presentation of the purpose, is used when discussing results and presenting conclusions. method, results, andfirst line of the abstract. study. Also, do not indent the conclusions of the

of the

T h e in tr Schedule-Induced Attack o 3 C is on m ot pl Schedule Induced Attack in Mouse Traps: la et Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects e b tit el le e The introduction begins on the page following the abstract. The d introduction is never labeled. This is where you present the logic and in th background research that suggested this study. The general problem area is e p mentioned in the first paragraph, followed by a brief review of the relevant a p published findings. er


There are specific ways to cite previously published works (Miller, 1941). When thereIntroduction: The topic of study is stated, research relevant (Looney & are two or more authors, they are cited this way Dove, 1978).
Continue to useis described, similarities and differences to your study double-spacing through-out the paper. This one typical and others middle as page, between section stops Indent is a Whenof a citation 2-author notedof citation. This the first lineis each paragraphforinathe arein-textaare work. typical your study from this point on. single-author regarding thehypotheses/predictions you next section starts immediately. Remember,after &last name. the Notice the outcome of your study.page haveeach of and when comma use the instead section!) (DO NOT start a new for

the citation is parenthetical. Also, initials are not used in in-text citations.

Schedule-Induced Attack 4 However, Wallace and Singer (1976) noted that facillima saepe non sunt optima accepit hoc. Also in similar studies it was observed that blah blah blah blah blah (Flory & Everist, 1977; Gentry, 1968; Killeen, 1979). Similarly, Flory (1969a) pointed out the problem of plures viri quam appellabant (p.384). Consistent with this view Schaal, Shahan, Kovera and Reilly (1998) note that babble babble babble pessimi copiis maius deum . For the present study I will look at the phenomenon mentioned first by Flory (1969b). When you than first time Use allmorecite theare than is cited in by the same List direct quotes sparingly; a articleis cited in youauthor When the authorsone workone workpart of the text, paper.within the authors more mentioned as the same parenthetical same reference,and. number or more authors should be cited using the indicate Thereafter, page write outtheworks with 3 as shown. publication them alphabetically by the last identify them in always orderyear, use the lowercase letters toname et al., 1998) first author with et al after it. Example: (Schaal, of the first alphabetical author.

Schedule-Induced Attack Subjects (Participants) Method

Three household mousetraps purchased from Wal-Mart Super Store in Lunchburg, West Virginia served as subjects. They were housed together in a 35 x 45 x 10 cm drawer lined with No Bugs MLady shelf paper, summer floral design. They were deprived of any form of cheese, but roaches and silver fish were freely available. Apparatus Each of three experimental chambers consisted of a 2 X 3 m room containing no windows and painted institutional green. Food delivery and target presentation were accomplished via human hand. Each food presentation consisted of one 2 cm cube of Kraft's longhorn style Colby cheese. The targets were feral mice obtained from the Dempsey Dumpsters in back of Gouda Student Center at Lunchburg College.

Use the term section provides information organismsthe conducting The method Subjects when non-human critical to were Apparatus: what equipment and material(s) were used in studied; Participants your study. Method is centeredhumans. Insection. replication of when the experiment has studied above the either the case, the no equipmentis left-justified and italicized. studies, Each If study. subsection label was used, as in most survey


Schedule-Induced Attack

Sessions were conducted in the dark since mouse traps are reportedly more active at night. Each subject was placed in an experimental chamber with food presentation occurring on a fixed time (FT) 6-hour schedule following the standard procedure for this variety of subject. The first food presentation occurred upon introduction of the subject into the experimental chamber. The target, a feral mouse, was then introduced into the chamber. Observation and recording of attacks upon the target were made at the end of each 6-hour interval. At that time, a new target animal was presented, if necessary. This phase of the experiment lasted for 10 days. Sessions were terminated after 18 hours during all phases of the experiment.

Procedure: this describes how the study was conducted, i.e. what the researchers did and what the participants/subjects were asked to do did.

Schedule-Induced Attack

The second phase of the experiment involved removal of the food schedule. The subject and the target were placed in the experimental chamber, but no food was presented. Again, observation and recording of attack were done every 6 hours. The phase of the experiment also lasted for 10 days. The third phase of the experiment was the reinstatement of the food schedule. Food was again presented on a FT 6-hour schedule for a period of 10 days.

This page is a continuation of the procedure subsection. You can see how one might explain how an experiment or study was conducted. Remember, in an actual paper, the next section would follow immediately, not begin on a new page.

Schedule-Induced Attack

8 Results

The data from a representative subject are shown in Table 1. Insert Table 1 about here The data are graphed in figure 1. As can be seen from this figure, the subject immediately exhibited high rates of attack upon the target which continued throughout the first phase. Insert figure 1 about here. When the food schedule was discontinued, the attack rate dropped to a very low level. When the food schedule was re-presented, the subject again attacked at high rates.

Theyou include table(s) or figure(s) for This is how your If results section presents the data page will look. collected,tables and lines where the how they clarity, insert the were analyzed, Actual and theare found is discussed. figures outcome of the analysis. information
at the end of the paper

Schedule-Induced Attack Discussion As the results indicate, the behavior of mouse traps does meet the criterion for schedule-induced attack The rate of attack in the presence of the food schedule clearly exceeded that during its absence. Food presentation not only induced attack upon mice, but also upon the experimenter whose fingers are still suffering from the effects of the viscous bites. The results of this study suggest that additional work in the field of inanimate object behavior is warranted. Scott (1971; as cited in Moyer, 1976) discusses the mechanism of stored energy with relation to aggressive behavior, while Pitts and Malagodi (1996) point out that blah bla bla.

Scott The discussion is used in this section. not seen was cited in Moyers work. You have The present tense section includes interpretation of your Scotts original article, so it will NOT appear in your list ofresults in relationship to your references. hypotheses/predictions and to related studies. You should note any flaws,

Schedule-Induced Attack


A similar avenue of research is suggested by recent work with blah blah bla (Schaal, et al., 1998). The results of this study are consistent with tristissiumus haec tibi scribo. Fundani nostri filia defuncta, qua puella nihil umquam festivus, amabilius, nec longiore vita (Calvillo, 1999). The conclusions of this study are limited by vicibus inhaerebat ut nos officio quemque studiose intelligenter qua patientia valetudinem tulit. Medicis obsequebatur, sororem, patrem adhortabatur; ipsamque se destitutam corpis viribus vigore.

Recall that this citation was seen on p.4, therefore does not need each author listed again.

Start references on a new page!

Schedule-Induced Attack References


Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21, 2002 from: http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.html Flory, R.K. (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior . 12, 825-828. Flory, R.K. (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386. Flory, R.K. & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on scheduleinduced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, 383-386. Gentry, W.D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817. interval. Journal

The first line of Referenceswrite and atan subsequent The word moreIf youone left-justified; author, IfIn this section,citation is work than one work Individual each page citation. from the top of a new you cite web do nothave more than is centered lines list them in chronological order (i.e.in the same year, earliest by the same author by date) page. between authors names; always use &. with the are indented. List first.citations in list in order by authors last title of the ABC alphabetical order by name, Journal names and article. first and middle names. page volume followed by initials for numbers are italicized;

Schedule-Induced Attack

12 P.

Killeen, P. R. (1979). Arousal: Its genesis, modulation, and extinction. In M. Zeiler & 78). New York: Wiley.

Harzen (Eds.), Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior (pp.31-

Looney, T.A. & Dove, L.D. (1978). Schedule-induced attack as a function of length of exposure to a fixed-time 90-sec schedule. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12, 320322. Moyer, K.E. (1976) The psychobiology of aggression. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. Miller, N. E. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review 48, 337-342. This is in book with two for citing a book. Chapter theastandard format editors different from the author of the chapter.

Schedule-Induced Attack

13 Article

Pitts, R.C. & Malagodi, E.F. (1996). Effects of reinforcement amount on attack induced under fixed interval schedule in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 65, 93-112. number A18506179. Retrieved 11 June, 2001 from Expanded Academic Schaal, D., Shahan, T., Kovera, C., & Reilley, M. (1998). Mechanisms underlying the effects of unsignaled delayed reinforcement on key pecking of pigeons under variable-interval [Electronic Version] Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 69, 103-122. Wallace, M. & Singer, G. (1976). Schedule-induced behavior: A review of its generality, determinants, and pharmacological data. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 5, 483-490. schedules. ASAP/InfoTrac database.

Article titles are written in identical to the Online journal article that issentence format. The first word of the title, proper nouns, available print version.. and the first letter Remember, all capitalized. (See above through in paper; after a colon are the authors are retrievedcitations thethe Online journal article listed in for example). Everything in this section must be cited in reference section. Last names precede within this section; Library subscription database be rolling Everything cited in the paper must the initials. URL.

No additional items are to be included.

Schedule-Induced Attack Author Note This research was supported in part by grants from the Mouse Trap Research Institute and from the Richard E. Rodent Foundation. I would like to thank


Melissa A. Mousse and Patrick S. Perfect for their assistance in conducting this study. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Michael Maus, Department of Psychology, Lunchburg College, 1501 Velveeta Drive, Lunchburg, West Virginia, 20542. E-mail: maus@lunchburg.edu

This section any funding sources Center the words The author note identifies each authorsthis paragraph. Identify should be double-spaced. for your departmental Provide correspondence information inresearch. Next, author note and indent the first line of each paragraph.

affiliation, identify the provides acknowledgements, disclaimers, names).there colleagues who provided significant assistance. If You complete mailing address (writing out state& possible are conflicts of any may include interest, circumstancescontact information for interested special and provides or conflicts of interest, note them an e-mail address at the end.


Schedule-Induced Attack 14 Table 1 Attacks by Subject Per Each 6 Hour Time Period
C di n o io nt
Ss i n es o

C ee h s e

N C ee o h s e

C ee h s e

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0

Sb c 1 uj t e 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

Sb c 2 uj t e 2 0 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 2 1

Sb c 3 uj t e 1 2 0 2 1 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 2

Schedule-Induced Attack Figure Caption


Figure 1. Average number of attacks across subjects during ds of food presentation and no food presentation.

If you have more than one figure, all captions are on one page. figures Figure captions describe the you include with your paper.

5 4 Average # 3 of Attacks 2 1 0

Cheese Series1 No Cheese Series2

0.2 1 Condition

Note that there is no header, page number, or title on the page with the figure.

When your paper is finished, open the checklist link on the Instructional Services page as a Word document. Print it out and use it to check that all the elements of your paper are in the proper format.

Additional Resources
The primary source for this presentation was the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (2001) 5th edition. Additional resources consulted were as follows:
American Psychological association. 2003, January 7) Electronic references. APAstyle.org. Retrieved January 22, 2003, from www.apastyle.org/ elecref.html Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E. (2001) Online! Retrieved August 21, 2002, from www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/ Rosnow, R.L. & Rosnow, M. (2003) Writing papers in psychology: A student guide to research reports, essays, proposals ,posters, and brief reports (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

For assistance with the process of writing the APA style paper, the authors recommend Szuchman, L.T. (2002) Writing with style: APA style made easy. (2nd ed.) Belmont, CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.