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Frequencies for communication

VLF = Very Low Frequency UHF = Ultra High Frequency


LF = Low Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency
MF = Medium Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency
HF = High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light
VHF = Very High Frequency

Frequency and wave length
= c/f
wave length , speed of light c ~ 3x10
8
m/s, frequency f

1 Mm
300 Hz
10 km
30 kHz
100 m
3 MHz
1 m
300 MHz
10 mm
30 GHz
100 m
3 THz
1 m
300 THz
visible light VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF infrared UV
optical transmission
coax cable twisted
pair
Frequencies for mobile communication
VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio
simple, small antenna for cars
deterministic propagation characteristics, reliable
connections
SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite
communication
small antenna, beam forming
large bandwidth available
Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF range
some systems planned up to EHF
limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules
(resonance frequencies)
weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall
etc.
Frequencies and regulations
ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency
bands worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences)
Examples Europe USA Japan
Cellular phones
GSM 880-915, 925-
960, 1710-1785,
1805-1880
UMTS 1920-1980,
2110-2170
AMPS, TDMA,
CDMA, GSM 824-
849, 869-894
TDMA, CDMA, GSM,
UMTS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PDC, FOMA 810-888,
893-958
PDC 1429-1453,
1477-1501
FOMA 1920-1980,
2110-2170
Cordless
phones
CT1+ 885-887, 930-
932
CT2 864-868
DECT 1880-1900
PACS 1850-1910,
1930-1990
PACS-UB 1910-1930
PHS 1895-1918
JCT 245-380
Wireless LANs
802.11b/g 2412-
2472
802.11b/g 2412-
2462
802.11b 2412-2484
802.11g 2412-2472
Other RF
systems
27, 128, 418, 433,
868
315, 915 426, 868
Signals I
physical representation of data
function of time and location
signal parameters: parameters representing the value of
data
classification
continuous time/discrete time
continuous values/discrete values
analog signal = continuous time and continuous values
digital signal = discrete time and discrete values
signal parameters of periodic signals:
period T, frequency f=1/T, amplitude A, phase shift
sine wave as special periodic signal for a carrier:

s(t) = A
t
sin(2 t f
t
t +
t
)
Fourier representation of periodic
signals
) 2 cos( ) 2 sin(
2
1
) (
1 1
nft b nft a c t g
n
n
n
n
t t


=

=
+ + =
1
0
1
0
t t
ideal periodic signal
real composition
(based on harmonics)
Signals II
Different representations of signals
amplitude (amplitude domain)
frequency spectrum (frequency domain)
phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase in polar
coordinates)





Composed signals transferred into frequency domain using
Fourier transformation
Digital signals need
infinite frequencies for perfect transmission
modulation with a carrier frequency for transmission (analog
signal!)
f [Hz]
A [V]

I= M cos
Q = M sin

A [V]
t[s]
Antennas: isotropic radiator
Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves,
coupling of wires to space for radio transmission
Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions (three
dimensional) - only a theoretical reference antenna
Real antennas always have directive effects (vertically
and/or horizontally)
Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around an
antenna

z y
x
z
y x
ideal
isotropic
radiator
Antennas: simple dipoles
Real antennas are not isotropic radiators but, e.g., dipoles
with lengths /4 on car roofs or /2 as Hertzian dipole
shape of antenna proportional to wavelength



Example: Radiation pattern of a simple Hertzian dipole




Gain: maximum power in the direction of the main lobe
compared to the power of an isotropic radiator (with the
same average power)

side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
simple
dipole
/4
/2
Antennas: directed and sectorized
side view (xy-plane)
x
y
side view (yz-plane)
z
y
top view (xz-plane)
x
z
top view, 3 sector
x
z
top view, 6 sector
x
z
Often used for microwave connections or base stations for
mobile phones (e.g., radio coverage of a valley)
directed
antenna
sectorized
antenna
Antennas: diversity
Grouping of 2 or more antennas
multi-element antenna arrays
Antenna diversity
switched diversity, selection diversity
receiver chooses antenna with largest output
diversity combining
combine output power to produce gain
cophasing needed to avoid cancellation

+
/4 /2 /4
ground plane
/2
/2
+
/2
Signal propagation ranges
Transmission range
communication possible
low error rate
Detection range
detection of the signal
possible
no communication
possible
Interference range
signal may not be
detected
signal adds to the
background noise

distance
sender
transmission
detection
interference
Signal propagation
Propagation in free space always like light (straight line)
Receiving power proportional to 1/d in vacuum much more in
real environments
(d = distance between sender and receiver)
Receiving power additionally influenced by
fading (frequency dependent)
shadowing
reflection at large obstacles
refraction depending on the density of a medium
scattering at small obstacles
diffraction at edges
reflection scattering diffraction shadowing refraction
Real world example
Multipath propagation
Signal can take many different paths between sender and
receiver due to reflection, scattering, diffraction






Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time
interference with neighbor symbols, Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI)
The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase shifted
distorted signal depending on the phases of the different
parts
signal at sender
signal at receiver
LOS pulses
multipath
pulses
Effects of mobility
Channel characteristics change over time and location
signal paths change
different delay variations of different signal parts
different phases of signal parts
quick changes in the power received (short term fading)

Additional changes in
distance to sender
obstacles further away
slow changes in the average
power received (long term fading)
short term fading
long term
fading
t
power
Multiplexing in 4 dimensions
space (s
i
)
time (t)
frequency (f)
code (c)

Goal: multiple use
of a shared medium

Important: guard spaces needed!
s
2

s
3

s
1

Multiplexing
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
f
t
c
channels k
i

Frequency multiplex
Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency
bands
A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the
whole time
Advantages
no dynamic coordination
necessary
works also for analog signals

Disadvantages
waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed
unevenly
inflexible

k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Time multiplex
A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount
of time

Advantages
only one carrier in the
medium at any time
throughput high even
for many users

Disadvantages
precise
synchronization
necessary
f
Time and frequency multiplex
Combination of both methods
A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time
Example: GSM

Advantages
better protection against
tapping
protection against frequency
selective interference
but: precise coordination
required
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Code multiplex
Each channel has a unique code

All channels use the same spectrum
at the same time
Advantages
bandwidth efficient
no coordination and synchronization
necessary
good protection against interference
and tapping
Disadvantages
varying user data rates
more complex signal regeneration
Implemented using spread spectrum technology
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
Modulation
Digital modulation
digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)
ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus
differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness
Analog modulation
shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier
Motivation
smaller antennas (e.g., /4)
Frequency Division Multiplexing
medium characteristics
Basic schemes
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Phase Modulation (PM)
Modulation and demodulation
synchronization
decision
digital
data
analog
demodulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio receiver
digital
modulation
digital
data
analog
modulation
radio
carrier
analog
baseband
signal
101101001
radio transmitter
Digital modulation
Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):
very simple
low bandwidth requirements
very susceptible to interference

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):
needs larger bandwidth


Phase Shift Keying (PSK):
more complex
robust against interference
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
1 0 1
t
Advanced Frequency Shift Keying
bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance
between the carrier frequencies
special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit
is doubled
depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the
other
Equivalent to offset QPSK

even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-
pass filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM
Example of MSK
data
even bits
odd bits
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
t
low
frequency
high
frequency
MSK
signal
bit
even 0 1 0 1
odd 0 0 1 1
signal h n n h
value - - + +
h: high frequency
n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal
No phase shifts!
Advanced Phase Shift Keying
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift
Keying):
bit value 0: sine wave
bit value 1: inverted sine wave
very simple PSK
low spectral efficiency
robust, used e.g. in satellite
systems
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying):
2 bits coded as one symbol
symbol determines shift of sine
wave
needs less bandwidth compared
to BPSK
more complex
Often also transmission of
relative, not absolute phase
shift: DQPSK - Differential QPSK


11 10 00 01
Q
I
0 1
Q
I
11
01
10
00
A
t
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
combines amplitude and phase modulation
it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
2
n
discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared
to comparable PSK schemes
Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol)
Symbols 0011 and 0001 have
the same phase , but different
amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have
different phase, but same amplitude.
0000
0001
0011
1000
Q
I
0010

a
Hierarchical Modulation
DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a single
DVB-T stream
High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority (LP)
stream
Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM
Example: 64QAM
good reception: resolve the entire
64QAM constellation
poor reception, mobile reception:
resolve only QPSK portion
6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most
significant determine QPSK
HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit),
LP uses remaining 4 bit
Q
I
00
10
000010 010101
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDMA)
Advantages:
No dynamic coordination

Disadvantages:
Inflexible & inefficient if
channel load is dynamic
and uneven

k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
Each channel gets a band (range) of frequencies
Used in traditional radio, TV, 1G cellular
EACH CHANNEL
OCCUPIES SAME
FREQUENCY
AT ALL TIMES
SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Time Division Multiplexing (TDMA)
Each channel gets entire spectrum for a certain (rotating)
time period
Advantage: Can assign more time to senders with heavier loads
3X capacity of FDMA, 1/3 of power consumption
Disadvantage: Requires precise synchronization
SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH
f
t
c
FREQUENCY BAND
Combining TDMA and FDMA
f
t
c
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

Each channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time. Example: GSM
Advantages:
More robust against frequency-
selective interference
Much greater capacity with
time compression
Inherent tapping protection

Disadvantages
Frequency
changes must
be coordinated
SOURCE: NORMAN SADEH
Time-Division Multiple Access
SOURCE: QUALCOMM
Code Division Multiplexing (CDMA)
Each channel has unique
code
All channels use same spectrum
at same time but orthogonal codes
Advantages:
bandwidth efficient code space is huge
no coordination or synchronization
between different channels
resists interference and tapping
3X capacity of TDMA, 1/25 power
consumption
Disadvantages:
more complex signal regeneration
Implemented using spread spectrum
k
2
k
3
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
1

f
t
c
Cellular Generations
First
Analog, circuit-switched (AMPS)
Second
Digital, circuit-switched (GSM, Palm) 10 Kbps
Advanced second
Digital, circuit switched, Internet-enabled (WAP)
10 Kbps
2.5
Digital, packet-switched, TDMA (GPRS, EDGE)
40-400 Kbps
Third
Digital, packet-switched, wideband CDMA (UMTS)
0.4 2 Mbps
Fourth
Data rate 100 Mbps; achieves telepresence




Spread spectrum technology
Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can wipe out narrow
band signals for duration of the interference
Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal using a special
code
protection against narrow band interference




Side effects:
coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination
tap-proof
Alternatives: Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping
detection at
receiver
interference spread
signal
signal
spread
interference
f f
power power
Effects of spreading and interference
dP/df
f
i)
dP/df
f
ii)
sender
dP/df
f
iii)
dP/df
f
iv)
receiver
f
v)
user signal
broadband interference
narrowband interference
dP/df
Spreading and frequency selective
fading
frequency
channel
quality
1
2
3
4
5 6
narrow band
signal
guard space
2
2
2
2
2

frequency
channel
quality
1
spread
spectrum
narrowband channels
spread spectrum channels
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I
XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence)
many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal


Advantages
reduces frequency selective
fading
in cellular networks
base stations can use the
same frequency range
several base stations can
detect and recover the signal
soft handover

Disadvantages
precise power control necessary
user data
chipping
sequence
resulting
signal
0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
XOR
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
=
t
b

t
c

t
b
: bit period
t
c
: chip period
In DSSS,
Here an XOR is performed on the chipping sequence ( receiver side)
Signal data + Barkers code=Chipping Sequence
Chipping sequence+ signal modulation= Signal for transmission
Spreading factor, s=tb/tc

In Demodulation, the chipping sequence must be known and there must not
be any signal delay.
Sequence at the sender and receiver must be properly synchronized.
In the final state, the decision unit samples the sum and decides if it
generates 0 or 1.
Use Rake receivers (they use n correlators) during occurrence of distortions
in sender signal.


DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum) II
X
user data
chipping
sequence
modulator
radio
carrier
spread
spectrum
signal
transmit
signal
transmitter
demodulator
received
signal
radio
carrier
X
chipping
sequence
lowpass
filtered
signal
receiver
integrator
products
decision
data
sampled
sums
correlator
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I
Here, total available BW is split into many channels of smaller BW plus guard spaces
between channels.
The transmitter and receiver tend to stay on one of these channels for some time and then
hop to another.
The pattern of channel usage is hopping sequence.
The time spend on a channel with a certain frequency is dwell time.
Discrete changes of carrier frequency
sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number sequence

Blue tooth performs 1600 hops per second.
Transmission data interfere only when both of them send signal in the same frequency at
the same time.
Steps: data+FSK/BPSK--Narrow band s/g
Hopping sequence is fed into frequency synthesizer
NB s/g+ modulator+ freq synt---Transmission Signal

Two versions
Fast Hopping:
several frequencies per user bit
Slow Hopping:
several user bits per frequency
Advantages
frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period
simple implementation
uses only small portion of spectrum at any time
Disadvantages
not as robust as DSSS
simpler to detect


FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum) II
user data
slow
hopping
(3 bits/hop)
fast
hopping
(3 hops/bit)
0 1
t
b

0 1 1 t
f
f
1

f
2

f
3

t
t
d

f
f
1

f
2

f
3

t
t
d

t
b
: bit period t
d
: dwell time
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum) III
modulator
user data
hopping
sequence
modulator
narrowband
signal
spread
transmit
signal
transmitter
received
signal
receiver
demodulator
data
frequency
synthesizer
hopping
sequence
demodulator
frequency
synthesizer
narrowband
signal
Cell structure
Implements space division multiplex
base station covers a certain transmission area (cell)
Mobile stations communicate only via the base station
Range of Base station inside a cell:
In buildings
In hilltops
In cities
In country side
Then why not use powerful transmitters?
Advantages of cell structures with small cells
higher capacity, higher number of users: frequency reuse (outside range)
less transmission power needed, les interference
more robust against failure of single components, decentralized. Antenna fails= local
area is affected, not whole network
base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally
Cell Clusters
ACTUAL COVERAGE
AREA OF CELL 1
ACTUAL COVERAGE
AREA OF CELL 3
CELL 1 OVERLAPS 6 OTHERS

DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES
MUST BE USED IN ADJACENT
CELLS

SEVEN DIFFERENT SETS OF
FREQUENCIES REQUIRED
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
PATTERN CAN BE
REPLICATED OVER
THE ENTIRE EARTH
200 FREQUENCIES
IN ONE CELL


TOTAL NUM BER OF
FREQUENCIES = 1400
WORLDWIDE
MANY CELLS CAN SHARE
SAME FREQUENCIES IF
SEPARATED IN SPACE
Cell Handover
AS PHONE MOVES FROM CELL A TO CELL B:
CELL A MUST HAND THE CALL OVER TO B
PHONE MUST CHANGE FREQUENCIES
CELL A MUST STOP TRANSMITTING
Minimum
performance
contour
Handover threshold
contour
A
B x y
z
Cell Sizes
MACROCELL: $1M
MICROCELL: $250K
SLOW-MOVING
SUBSCRIBERS
FAST-MOVING
SUBSCRIBERS
PICOCELLS
GSM:
100m - 50 km
250 km/hr
Problems/ Disadvantages of small cells
Need for a complex infrastructure
fixed network needed for the base stations
handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary
interference with other cells
Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) -
even less for higher frequencies

Frequency planning I
Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations
Standard model using 7 frequencies:




Fixed frequency assignment:
certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell
problem: different traffic load in different cells
Dynamic frequency assignment:
base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already used in
neighbor cells
more capacity in cells with more traffic
assignment can also be based on interference measurements
f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
2

f
6

f
7

f
3

f
2

f
4

f
5

f
1

Frequency planning II
f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
1

f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

f
1

f
2

f
1

f
3
f
3

f
3
f
3

f
3

f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
2

f
6

f
7

f
3

f
2

f
4

f
5

f
1

f
3

f
5
f
6

f
7
f
2

f
2

f
1
f
1
f
1

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

f
2

f
3

h
1

h
2

h
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

h
1

h
2

h
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

g
1

g
2

g
3

3 cell cluster
7 cell cluster
3 cell cluster
with 3 sector antennas
1. Borrowing Channel Allocation
2. Fixed Channel Allocation
3. Dynamic Channel Allocation
Cell breathing
CDM systems: cell size depends on current load
Additional traffic appears as noise to other users
If the noise level is too high users drop out of cells
Similar as trying to talk to some one in a crowded party.





Satellite Communications
Satellite-Related Terms
Earth Stations antenna systems on or near earth

Uplink transmission from an earth station to a satellite

Downlink transmission from a satellite to an earth station

Transponder electronics in the satellite that convert uplink signals to
downlink signals
Ways to Categorize Communications Satellites
Coverage area
Global, regional, national
Service type
Fixed service satellite (FSS)
Broadcast service satellite (BSS)
Mobile service satellite (MSS)
General usage
Commercial, military, amateur, experimental
Classification of Satellite Orbits
Circular or elliptical orbit
Circular with center at earths center
Elliptical with one foci at earths center
Orbit around earth in different planes
Equatorial orbit above earths equator
Polar orbit passes over both poles
Other orbits referred to as inclined orbits
Altitude of satellites
Geostationary orbit (GEO)
Medium earth orbit (MEO)
Low earth orbit (LEO)
Geometry Terms
Elevation angle - the angle from the horizontal to the point on the
center of the main beam of the antenna when the antenna is pointed
directly at the satellite

Minimum elevation angle

Coverage angle - the measure of the portion of the earth's surface
visible to the satellite
Satellite Systems
GEO
M EO
LEO
GEO (22,300 mi., equatorial)
high bandwidth, power, latency
MEO
high bandwidth, power, latency
LEO (400 mi.)
low power, latency
more satellites
small footprint
V-SAT (Very Small Aperture)
private WAN
SATELLITE MAP
Geostationary Orbit
Minimum Elevation Angle
Reasons affecting minimum elevation angle of earth stations antenna (>0
o
)
Buildings, trees, and other terrestrial objects block the line of sight
Atmospheric attenuation is greater at low elevation angles
Electrical noise generated by the earth's heat near its surface adversely
affects reception
GEO Orbit
Advantages of the the GEO orbit
No problem with frequency changes
Tracking of the satellite is simplified
High coverage area

Disadvantages of the GEO orbit
Weak signal after traveling over 35,000 km
Polar regions are poorly served
Signal sending delay is substantial
LEO Satellite Characteristics
Circular/slightly elliptical orbit under 2000 km
Orbit period ranges from 1.5 to 2 hours
Diameter of coverage is about 8000 km
Round-trip signal propagation delay less than 20 ms
Maximum satellite visible time up to 20 min
System must cope with large Doppler shifts
Atmospheric drag results in orbital deterioration
LEO Categories
Little LEOs
Frequencies below 1 GHz
5MHz of bandwidth
Data rates up to 10 kbps
Aimed at paging, tracking, and low-rate messaging
Big LEOs
Frequencies above 1 GHz
Support data rates up to a few megabits per sec
Offer same services as little LEOs in addition to voice and positioning
services
MEO Satellite Characteristics
Circular orbit at an altitude in the range of 5000 to 12,000 km
Orbit period of 6 hours
Diameter of coverage is 10,000 to 15,000 km
Round trip signal propagation delay less than 50 ms
Maximum satellite visible time is a few hours
Frequency Bands Available for Satellite Communications
Satellite Link Performance Factors
Distance between earth station antenna and satellite antenna

For downlink, terrestrial distance between earth station antenna and
aim point of satellite
Displayed as a satellite footprint (Figure 9.6)

Atmospheric attenuation
Affected by oxygen, water, angle of elevation, and higher frequencies
Satellite Footprint
Satellite Network Configurations
Capacity Allocation Strategies
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
Frequency-Division Multiplexing
Alternative uses of channels in point-to-point configuration
1200 voice-frequency (VF) voice channels
One 50-Mbps data stream
16 channels of 1.544 Mbps each
400 channels of 64 kbps each
600 channels of 40 kbps each
One analog video signal
Six to nine digital video signals
Frequency-Division Multiple Access
Factors which limit the number of subchannels provided within a satellite
channel via FDMA
Thermal noise
Intermodulation noise
Crosstalk
Forms of FDMA
Fixed-assignment multiple access (FAMA)
The assignment of capacity is distributed in a fixed manner among multiple
stations
Demand may fluctuate
Results in the significant underuse of capacity
Demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA)
Capacity assignment is changed as needed to respond optimally to demand
changes among the multiple stations
FAMA-FDMA
FAMA logical links between stations are preassigned
FAMA multiple stations access the satellite by using different frequency bands
Uses considerable bandwidth
DAMA-FDMA
Single channel per carrier (SCPC) bandwidth divided into individual VF
channels
Attractive for remote areas with few user stations near each site
Suffers from inefficiency of fixed assignment
DAMA set of subchannels in a channel is treated as a pool of available
links
For full-duplex between two earth stations, a pair of subchannels is
dynamically assigned on demand
Demand assignment performed in a distributed fashion by earth station
using CSC
Reasons for Increasing Use of TDM Techniques
Cost of digital components continues to drop
Advantages of digital components
Use of error correction
Increased efficiency of TDM
Lack of intermodulation noise
FAMA-TDMA Operation
Transmission in the form of repetitive sequence of frames
Each frame is divided into a number of time slots
Each slot is dedicated to a particular transmitter
Earth stations take turns using uplink channel
Sends data in assigned time slot
Satellite repeats incoming transmissions
Broadcast to all stations
Stations must know which slot to use for transmission and which to use
for reception
FAMA-TDMA Uplink
FAMA-TDMA Downlink


TDMA
Fixed TDMA
Classical ALOHA
Slotted ALOHA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access
Demand Assigned Multiple Access
Packet Reservation Multiple Access
Reservation TDMA
Multiple Access with collision Avoidance
Polling
Inhibit Sense Multiple Access
Data link layer divided into two functionality-oriented sublayers
Taxonomy of multiple-access protocols
Motivation - near and far terminals
Terminals A and B send, C receives
signal strength decreases proportional to the square of the distance
the signal of terminal B therefore drowns out As signal
C cannot receive A






If C for example was an arbiter for sending rights, terminal B
would drown out terminal A already on the physical layer
Also severe problem for CDMA-networks - precise power control
needed!
A B C
Access methods SDMA/FDMA/TDMA
SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
segment space into sectors, use directed antennas
cell structure
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
assign a certain frequency to a transmission channel
between a sender and a receiver
permanent (e.g., radio broadcast), slow hopping (e.g.,
GSM), fast hopping (FHSS, Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum)
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
assign the fixed sending frequency to a transmission channel
between a sender and a receiver for a certain amount of
time

FDD/FDMA - general scheme,
example GSM
f
t
124
1
124
1
20 MHz
200 kHz
890.2 MHz
935.2 MHz
915 MHz
960 MHz
TDD/TDMA - general scheme,
example DECT
1 2 3 11 12 1 2 3 11 12
t
downlink uplink
417 s
Aloha/slotted aloha
Mechanism
random, distributed (no central arbiter), time-multiplex
Slotted Aloha additionally uses time-slots, sending must
always start at slot boundaries
Aloha




Slotted Aloha
sender A
sender B
sender C
collision
sender A
sender B
sender C
collision
t
t
12.88
Frames in a pure ALOHA network
12.89
Vulnerable time for slotted ALOHA protocol
DAMA - Demand Assigned Multiple Access
Channel efficiency only 18% for Aloha, 36% for Slotted Aloha (assuming Poisson distribution for packet arrival and packet
length)
A typical scheme for satellite systems
Two Modes: 1) Contention Phase
2) Slotted Aloha scheme
Reservation can increase efficiency to 80%
a sender/station reserves a future time-slot. Eg: Stations on earth can reserve time for satellite transmission.
Collison donot destroy data.
No other station is allowed to transmit during the RESERVED timeslot.
Satellite collects all successful requests and send s back to ground station. Transmission takes place as per the
order in the list.
sending within this reserved time-slot is possible without collision
reservation also causes higher delays
typical scheme for satellite links
Examples for reservation algorithms:
Explicit Reservation according to Roberts (Reservation-ALOHA)
Implicit Reservation (PRMA)
Reservation-TDMA
Access method DAMA: Explicit Reservation
Explicit Reservation (Reservation Aloha):
two modes:
ALOHA mode for reservation:
competition for small reservation slots, collisions possible
reserved mode for data transmission within successful reserved
slots (no collisions possible)
it is important for all stations to keep the reservation list
consistent at any point in time and, therefore, all stations
have to synchronize from time to time
Aloha reserved Aloha reserved Aloha reserved Aloha
collision
t
12 3 4 5 12 3 4
Access method DAMA: PRMA
Implicit reservation (PRMA - Packet Reservation MA):
a certain number of slots form a frame, frames are repeated
stations compete for empty slots according to the slotted aloha principle
once a station reserves a slot successfully, this slot is automatically
assigned to this station in all following frames as long as the station has
data to send
competition for this slots starts again as soon as the slot was empty in the
last frame
frame
1

frame
2

frame
3

frame
4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 time-slot
collision at
reservation
attempts
A C D A B A F
A C A B A
A B A F
A B A F D
t
ACDABA-F
ACDABA-F
AC-ABAF-
A---BAFD
ACEEBAFD
Access method DAMA: Reservation-TDMA
Reservation Time Division Multiple Access
every frame consists of N mini-slots and x data-slots
every station has its own mini-slot and can reserve up to k
data-slots using this mini-slot (i.e. x = N * k).
other stations can send data in unused data-slots according
to a round-robin sending scheme (best-effort traffic)
N mini-slots
N * k data-slots
reservations
for data-slots
other stations can use free data-slots
based on a round-robin scheme
e.g. N=6, k=2
MACA - collision avoidance
MACA (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) uses short signaling packets for collision
avoidance
RTS (request to send): a sender request the right to send from a receiver with a short
RTS packet before it sends a data packet
CTS (clear to send): the receiver grants the right to send as soon as it is ready to
receive
Signaling packets contain
sender address
receiver address
packet size

Variants of this method can be found in IEEE802.11 as DFWMAC
(Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC)
MACA examples
MACA avoids the problem of hidden terminals
A and C want to
send to B
A sends RTS first
C waits after receiving
CTS from B


MACA avoids the problem of exposed terminals
B wants to send to A, C
to another terminal
now C does not have
to wait for it cannot
receive CTS from A
A B C
RTS
CTS CTS
A B C
RTS
CTS
RTS
Disadvantages of MACA
Time taking in the sending critical data packets.
It assumes symmetrical transmission and reception
conditions
MACA variant: DFWMAC in IEEE802.11
idle
wait for the
right to send
wait for ACK
sender receiver
packet ready to send; RTS
time-out;
RTS
CTS; data
ACK
RxBusy
idle
wait for
data
RTS; RxBusy
RTS;
CTS
data;
ACK
time-out v
data;
NAK
ACK: positive acknowledgement
NAK: negative acknowledgement
RxBusy: receiver busy

time-out v
NAK;
RTS
Polling mechanisms
If one terminal can be heard by all others, this central terminal (a.k.a. base station)
can poll all other terminals according to a certain scheme
now all schemes known from fixed networks can be used (typical mainframe -
terminal scenario)
Example: Randomly Addressed Polling
base station signals readiness to all mobile terminals
terminals ready to send can now transmit a random number without collision with
the help of CDMA or FDMA (the random number can be seen as dynamic address)
the base station now chooses one address for polling from the list of all random
numbers (collision if two terminals choose the same address)
the base station acknowledges correct packets and continues polling the next
terminal
this cycle starts again after polling all terminals of the list
ISMA (Inhibit Sense Multiple Access)
Current state of the medium is signaled via a busy tone
the base station signals on the downlink (base station to terminals) if the medium is
free or not
terminals must not send if the medium is busy
terminals can access the medium as soon as the busy tone stops
the base station signals collisions and successful transmissions via the busy tone and
acknowledgements, respectively (media access is not coordinated within this
approach)
mechanism used, e.g.,
for CDPD
(USA, integrated
into AMPS)
Access method CDMA
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
all terminals send on the same frequency probably at the same time and can use
the whole bandwidth of the transmission channel
each sender has a unique random number, the sender XORs the signal with this
random number
the receiver can tune into this signal if it knows the pseudo random number,
tuning is done via a correlation function

Need to understand two concepts before continuing:
1) Orthogonality
2) Auto Correlation

Orthogonality Auto Correlation
(2,5,0) & (0,0,17)
2*0+5*0+0*17=0
When the inner product with
itself is large, we call the
code to be in good
correlation.
(3,-2,4) & (-2,3,3)
-12+12=0
Disadvantages Advantages
higher complexity of a receiver
(receiver cannot just listen into
the medium and start receiving if
there is a signal)

all terminals can use the same
frequency, no planning needed

all signals should have the same
strength at a receiver

huge code space (e.g. 2
32
)
compared to frequency space
interferences (e.g. white noise)
is not coded

forward error correction and
encryption can be easily
integrated

Access method CDMA
CDMA in theory
Sender A
sends A
d
= 1, key A
k
= 010011 (assign: 0= -1, 1= +1)
sending signal A
s
= A
d
* A
k
= (-1, +1, -1, -1, +1, +1)
Sender B
sends B
d
= 0, key B
k
= 110101 (assign: 0= -1, 1= +1)
sending signal B
s
= B
d
* B
k
= (-1, -1, +1, -1, +1, -1)
Both signals superimpose in space
interference neglected (noise etc.)
A
s
+ B
s
= (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0)
Receiver wants to receive signal from sender A
apply key A
k
bitwise (inner product)
A
e
= (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0) - A
k
= 2 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 0 = 6
result greater than 0, therefore, original bit was 1
receiving B

B
e
= (-2, 0, 0, -2, +2, 0) - B
k
= -2 + 0 + 0 - 2 - 2 + 0 = -6, i.e. 0
CDMA on signal level I
data A
key A
signal A
data key
key
sequence A
Real systems use much longer keys resulting in a larger distance
between single code words in code space.
1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
A
d

A
k

A
s

CDMA on signal level II
signal A
data B
key B
key
sequence B
signal B
A
s
+ B
s

data key
1 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
B
d

B
k

B
s

A
s

CDMA on signal level III
A
k

(A
s
+ B
s
)
* A
k

integrator
output
comparator
output
A
s
+ B
s

data A
1 0 1
1 0 1
A
d

CDMA on signal level IV
integrator
output
comparator
output
B
k

(A
s
+ B
s
)
* B
k

A
s
+ B
s

data B
1 0 0
1 0 0
B
d

comparator
output
CDMA on signal level V
wrong
key K
integrator
output
(A
s
+ B
s
)
* K
A
s
+ B
s

(0) (0) ?
Aloha has only a very low efficiency, CDMA needs complex receivers to be able to receive
different senders with individual codes at the same time
Idea: use spread spectrum with only one single code (chipping sequence) for spreading
for all senders accessing according to aloha
SAMA - Spread Aloha Multiple Access
1
sender A
0
sender B
0
1
t
narrow
band
send for a
shorter period
with higher power
spread the signal e.g. using the chipping sequence 110101 (CDMA without CD)
Problem: find a chipping sequence with good characteristics
1
1
collision