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Mobile WiMAX

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PROTOCOL LAYERING IN WiMAX

WiMAX is defined over the PHY and MAC layers, in order to support various functions, the MAC layer is logically defined in the form of three sublayers under IEEE802.16-2004. These sublayers and their functions are: The Convergence Sublayer (CS) : Is responsible for interfacing with a range of different types of higher layers, each represented, for example, by a different network type.
MAC

Common Part Sublayer (CPS) : 4/21/12 Provides the main functions of connection

PROTOCOL LAYERING IN WiMAX

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Mobile

WiMAX has been designed to bring in many features which place the new wireless MAN services on a completely new footing. The IEEE 802.16e standard brings in features such as scalable OFDMA support of mobility and handover advanced antenna systems beamforming multiple input multiple output antenna systems (MIMO), spatial multiplexing, encryption, and authentication, etc. 4/21/12

Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e-2005)

Protocol Layering in Mobile WiMAX

In addition to the convergence sublayer, the Mobile WiMAX protocols need to support mobility and handover. This part is handled by the mobility agent, which is a part of the protocol structure used for Mobile WiMAX networks. The higher layers of the applications are thus isolated from the issues arising from the mobility of the user devices.
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Protocol Layering in Mobile WiMAX

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Subchannelization in Mobile WiMAX Unlike Fixed WiMAX where the subchannels

are allowed only in the uplink, Mobile WiMAX has provisions for subchannels to be allocated both in the uplink and downlink. The carriers allotted to a subchannel are not generally adjacent. allocating adjacent subcarriers reduces the frequency diversity, as any frequency selective fading would impact the bulk of adjacent carriers.

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Subchannelization in Mobile WiMAX


Band Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) : This is a scheme where the subcarriers in WiMAX are allotted as adjacent subcarriers. Pseudo-Random Allocation of Subcarriers (is used in mobile WiMAX) : This is a scheme where the subchannels are formed by distributing the subcarriers randomly across the frequency spectrum.

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Frame Structure in Mobile WiMAX can operate using both FDD and TDD modes, While Mobile WiMAX

only the TDD mode has been selected for initial implementation profiles. The frame structure of Mobile WiMAX, consists of TDD frames each comprised of a downlink subframe and an uplink subframe. The downlink subframe begins with a preamble (used for synchronization). The preamble is followed by the frame control information (FCH), which provides information on the length of MAP messages, coding scheme, and the subchannel information. This is followed by the downlink map and uplink map. A portion of the uplink subframe is assigned for being used as a ranging channel where new stations can make requests to the base station for time slot assignment. The use of this channel is for network entry, connection maintenance, bandwidth request, and efficient handover (HO). The access to ranging channel is on a contention basis by using a signaling scheme based on code division multiple access (CDMA). Up to 256 sets of ranging codes (each 144 bits) can be generated. These are divided into four groups: handover ranging, bandwidth 4/21/12 requests, initial requests, and periodic requests.

Frame Structure in Mobile WiMAX

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MOBILE WiMAX NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

At the lowest stratum a WiMAX network consists of an access service network (ASN) ASN comprised of a number of base stations, access networks, and access gateways. The base station : connects to the MS using the WiMAX PHY air interface The access service network gateway (ASNGW) : The ASN gateway is the point where traffic from all base stations (and other ASNs in the domain) is aggregated for interface to external networks

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MOBILE WiMAX NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

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Functions of the ASN


Connection with the mobile station including
establishing PHY and MAC layer connectivities Provide handover and roaming facilities within the ASN for mobile stations To provide AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting protocol) facilities for the user in conjunction with the home network of the user To provide relay facilities between the ASN and the external networks

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Beyond the ASN WiMAX network and its application environment is A network access provider (NAP) : is an comprised of these distinct entity that operates one or more access entities. service networks (ASNs).
A

network service provider (NSP) : is an entity which provides connectivity and services to network access providers. Applications service providers (ASPs) : which provide services such as HTTP, video streaming, file downloads, e-mail, etc. These services fall above the network layer in the protocol model. Connectivity service network (CSN) has 4/21/12 AAA servers that support authentication for

Building the WiMAX Network Beyond the ASN

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Some Features of Mobile WiMAX core network and the radio access Both the Network Architecture

networks based on IP; protocols based on IEEE 802.16 and IETF Support of fixed network, nomadic, or mobile usage with full migration path to mobility The network architecture is relatively flat, which enables a WiMAX service to start with a single ASN; for this purpose the WiMAX Forum's Network Working Group (NWG) has defined multiple ASN profiles Network core architecture is not based on support of any particular service, i.e., voice, 4/21/12 data, or video; it is a multi-service core

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
As

the IP connections are at the network layer, this implies that the entire IP connection, with all the connectivity attributes between the mobile user device and the application source, need to switch over to the new radio access station. 1 -First PHY and MAC layer connections switch to the next radio access station. 2 -Then the IP connection, which is defined at the network layer, should then recognize that the destination device now needs different connectivity parameters such as a 4/21/12 different base station address or a different

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
first is carried out by the Mobile WiMAX as it is defined up to the first two layers. The second is in the domain of the mobile IP. WiMAX networks are built using the IPV6 as the core protocol. The mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) has built-in features to support mobility. The mobility can be intra-ASN (i.e., where the mobile station is within the area of the same ASN) or inter-ASN (i.e., where the mobile station moves out of the range of one ASN to another ASN). in the first case, the mobility can be 4/21/12 managed by the ASN itself
The

WiMAX Network Reference Model for Mobility

The connectivity service networks (CSNs), which are operated by network service providers can be thought of as major geographical area nodes such as those providing connectivity to ASNs in a city. Some of The functions which need to be performed by the CSNs : To provide IP address to each mobile station in its coverage area and provide AAA(Authentication, Authorization and Accounting protocol) proxy by doing the 4/21/12 authentication with the home CSN.

WiMAX Network Reference Model for Mobility

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About MOBILE IP
When

a mobile station moves from one base station to another, the mechanism of the Mobile WiMAX provides a physical as well as MAC layer connection via the new base station. This may be via an existing CSN or a new CSN. In order that an application which has been established over the network continues to view the connection as uninterrupted, all application-layer packets that are addressed to the mobile station should continue to get delivered with the same IP address.
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MIPv6: IP Mobility in IPv6 Networks

Mobile

IP is designed to keep the mobility of the receiver transparent to the application by being able to correlate any new IP address of the mobile station with the old IP address as known to the application. This ensures that a session established (e.g., for streaming) remains connected when the mobile station moves from one BS, ASN, or CSN to another one, thus providing IP mobility. MIPv6: IP Mobility in IPv6 Networks Providing IP mobility is simple in IPv6 core 4/21/12 networks. The IPv6 protocols have also been

ASN PROFILES

Three ASN profiles is defined. These profiles are called A, B, and C. These profiles have been specified in order to permit WiMAX network operators to avoid having to support each and every protocol and making the implementations more complex and expensive. Profile A uses a centralized control element ,the ASN-GW. The ASN-GW function includes the radio resource management function (RRM). Profile B is a distributed ASN solution with both the ASN-GW and
base station (BS) functionalities implemented in a single platform. In Profile B, as the ASN GW functionality is embedded in the base station, external ASN-GW is not needed.

Profile C is similar to Profile A in having an ASN-GW as a central control element in an ASN. However, the difference in Profiles A and C lies in the fact that the RRM function is supported in the BS. no specific advantage is attained in having a centralized RRM controller (as in Profile A). profiles B and C are supported in the 4/21/12 future.

HAND OVER PROCESS


Hand over process consists of six different stages.
Cell

Reselection Handover decision Handover Initiation Synchronization Termination of Services Handover cancellation

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HAND OVER PROCESS


Cell

Reselection: MS acquires info about the BS in the Network and evaluate the Possibility to perform handover. The initiation of a handover is the decision to migrate the MS from the serving BS to Target BS. Handover request will trigger a sequence of Handover specific message to be sent inbetween MS and BS. Synchronization : To Establish Communication with the target BS, the MS need to synchronize . 4/21/12 Termination : Termination of services at the

Types of Hand over


Three types of handovers are defined in MIPv6 smooth handover fast handover seamless handover In smooth handover, the priority is in minimizing data loss, whereas in fast handover the latency in establishing a new connection is of prime importance. Seamless handover combines the features of the two to provide handovers with minimum latency and minimum data loss.
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INTERFACE TO OTHER NETWORKS legacy networks with IP In order to interface


based networks, an addressing gateway is needed for address conversion and a media gateway to convert the formats used. The third-generation partnership project (3GPP) has indeed recognized the need for such network interfaces and has come out with its architecture of IP Multimedia System (IMS) in the 3GPP Release 5. The long-term approach is to have an all-IP network until this becomes a reality, however, the cellular networks have 4/21/12 commenced using the IP multimedia system

Thanks for your attention

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