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FRACTURE

MACROSCOPIC & MICROSCOPIC ASPECTS

Enero 2012

MACROSCOPIC ASPECTS

Fracture of a material by cracking can occur in many ways: 1. Slow application of external loads. 2. Rapid application of external loads (impact). 3. Cyclic or repeated loading (fatigue). 4. Environmental effects (stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, liquid metal embrittlement, etc.) The process of fracture: 1. Damage accumulation. 2. Nucleation of one or more cracks or voids. 3. Growth of cracks or voids. (This may involve a coalescence of the cracks or voids.) When the local strength or ductility is exceeded, a crack (two free surfaces) is formed. On continued loading, the crack propagates through the section until complete rupture occurs.

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To describe the resistance to fracture of a material is the plane strain fracture toughness, defined as the critical stress intensity factor under plane strain conditions and mode I loading. This is the stress intensity factor at which a crack of a given size starts to grow in an unstable manner. The fracture toughness is related to the applied stress by :

KIc is the fracture toughness in mode I loading, a is the characteristic dimension (semilength) of the crack and Y is a factor that depends on the geometry of the specimen, the location of the crack, and the loading configuration.

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Orowan developed a simple method for obtaining the theoretical tensile strength of a crystal. With his method, no stress concentrations at the tip of the crack are assumed; instead, it is assumed that all atoms separate simultaneously once their separation reaches a critical value. MAX The area under the curve is the work required to cleave the crystal.

Stress

a0

This work of deformation cannot be lower than the energy of the two new surfaces created by the cleavage.

Distance, a

Assuming that the elastic deformation is restricted to the two planes and that the material is isotropic, the fractional change in the distance between the planes, da/a0, is defined as the incremental strain d.

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However, d is not known; to determine d, the area under the curve has to be equated to the energy of the two surfaces created

The maximum value of is equal to the theoretical cleavage stress. Sustituyendo d en la ec. anterior

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STRESS CONCENTRATION

It is almost impossible to measure the stress at the tip of the crack. An equivalent criterion, called the Griffith criterion, is more useful and predicts the force that must be applied to a body containing a crack for the propagation of the crack

Stress Concentration Factor His analytical model was based on the elastic solution of a cavity elongated in the form of an ellipse. The maximum stress occurs at the ends of the major axis of the cavity and is given by Ingliss formula

In the case of an extremely flat ellipse or a very narrow crack of length 2a and having a radius of curvature = b2/a

Kt =

GRIFFITH CRITERION

Elastic strain energy is released in a volume of material, and two new crack surfaces are created, which represent a surface-energy term

Strain energy

Surface energy

fracture toughness A necessary condition for crack propagation is: NOTE: if the local stress at the crack tip is not sufficiently large to break the atomic bonds, the energy criterion of Griffith will be inadequate

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The mechanics of fracture will, then, depend on the magnitude of p, the plastic work done, which in its turn depends on the crack speed, temperature, and the nature of the material. In the case of plastic deformation, the work done in the propagation of a crack per unit area of the fracture surface is increased from s to (s + p)

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Localized plastic deformation at the crack tip therefore improves the fracture toughness of the material. This is the conventional treatment of the plastic work contribution to the fracture process, where in p is considered to be a constant. Irwin made a fundamental contribution to the mechanics of fracture when he proposed that fracture occurs at a stress that corresponds to a critical value of the crack extension force

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Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) was create enabling us to obtain a quantitative measure of the resistance of a brittle material to unstable or catastrophic crack propagation. Extension of these efforts into nonlinear elastic and plastic regimens has led to the development of elasto-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM), also called post-yield fracture mechanics

Fracture Toughness 1. The far-field stress, . 2. The characteristic crack length, a. 3. The inherent material resistance to cracking,KR. K (stress intensity) is to stress. Stress and stress intensity factor vary with the external loading conditions KR (fracture toughness) is to strength. strength and toughness are material parameters, independent of loading and specimen size considerations.

http://mae.ucdavis.edu/vlasaponara/equations_fracture_fatigue.p df 13

Stress Field in an Isotropic Material in the Vicinity of a Crack Tip KI, KII, and KIII represent stress intensity factors in modes I, II, and III, respectively. Mode I Mode II Mode III

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Thus, K will characterize the external conditions (i.e., the nominal applied stress and half the crack length a) that correspond to fracture when stresses and strains at the crack tip reach a critical value. Kc depends on the dimensions of the specimen. In the case of a thin sample (plane-stress conditions), Kc depends on the thickness of the sample, whereas in the case of a sufficiently thick sample (plane-strain conditions), K is independent of the thickness of the specimen and is designated as KIc. 15

for an infinite solid, a/W = 0, and we have an edge crack in a semi-infinite plate, we have

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Plastic-Zone Size Correction When the whole of the reduced section yields, the plastic zone spreads to the edges of the sample, and K does not have any validity as a parameter defining the stress field. When the plastic zone is small in relation to the crack length, it can be visualized as a cylinder of radius ry at the crack tip.

The material in the plastic zone deforms in such a way that its volume is kept constant. Thus, the large deformations in the x1 and x2 directions tend to induce a contraction in the x3 direction, which is resisted by the surrounding elastic material.

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Crack Extension Force G

The change in elastic strain energy with respect to the crack area, in the limit of the area going to zero, equals the crack extension force It is convenient to evaluate G in terms of the compliance c of the sample Crack Opening Displacement The development of a plastic zone at the tip of the crack results in a displacement of the faces without crack extension. This relative displacement of opposite crack edges is called the crack opening displacement (COD).

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R Curve An R curve graphically represents this resistance to crack propagation of the material as a function of crack growth. With increasing load in a cracked structure, the crack extension force G at the crack tip also increases.

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The crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), , is the parameter that controls crack extension. The elastic portion is related to K or G. The plastic portion is not strictly a material property, in as much as it depends on the specimens dimensions, constraints Jel is the elastic portion. Jpl is a function of the geometry of the component and the crack load corresponding to extensive plastic deformation, and the material characteristics.

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When one needs to characterize materials by their toughness, only valid KIc data should be considered. KIc is the critical stress intensity factor under conditions of plane stress (33 = 0), which is characterized by large plasticity at the crack tip. In this case, the through-thickness constraint is negligible.

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The strength distribution of a brittle solid can be explained by a statistical distribution called the Weibull distribution

where is the applied stress and m, 0, and u are material constants for a constant-flaw population

for an equal probability of survival, the largerthe volume (V2 > V1), the smaller must be the fracture strength (1 < 2).

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MICROSCOPIC ASPECTS

Ductile failure occurs by (a) the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids, (b) continuous reduction in the metals cross-sectional area until it is equal to zero, or (c) shearing along a plane of maximum shear. 23

METALS

High-purity metals, such as copper, nickel, gold, and other very ductile materials, fail with very high reductions in their areas Brittle fracture is characterized by the propagation of one or more cracks through the structure; metals and some polymers undergo irreversible deformation at the tip of the crack, which affects its propagation.

The nucleation of a crack in a perfect crystal essentially involves the rupture of interatomic bonds.The stress necessary to do this is the theoretical cohesive stress.

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In ductile materials dislocations can move on a large number of slip systems and even cross from one plane to another. In crystalline solids, cracks can be nucleated by the grouping of dislocations piled up against a barrier.

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The dimples are equiaxal in the central portion of the fracture and tend to be inclined in the sidewalls of the cup. The size, separation, and interfacial bonding of these particles determine the overall propagation characteristics of ductile cracks and, therefore, the ductility of the material.

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When cleavage cracks form and propagate at a greater rate than plastic deformation, the material fails in a brittle manner.

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CERAMICS

Among the approaches developed to enhance the ductility of ceramics are: 1. The addition of fibers to the ceramic to form a composite 2. The addition of a second phase that transforms at the crack tip with a shear and dilational component. 3. The production of microcracks ahead of the crack. 4. Careful processing in such a manner that all flaws of a size greater than the grain size are eliminated. The inability of deformation stronger, but propagation drastically ceramics to undergo plastic renders ceramics much their ability to resist the of cracks is decreased

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The fracture toughness The tensile stress at which a flaw will be activated

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In anisotropic materials, the grain boundaries are regions of stress concentration in which the initiation of a fracture is more likely to occur than in other regions.

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Since KIc is a material constant, the compressive stress at which a crack grows decreases with increasing void size. Hence, larger voids are more effective crack starters.

formed. At a still larger confinement the brittle material exhibits a pseudoplastic response,with numerous flaws activating cracks.

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Thermally Induced Fracture in Ceramics Thermal stresses induced during cooling can have a profound effect on the mechanical strength of the ceramics. The problem is especially crucial in composites

For constant expansion coefficients, and assuming a constant E When a ceramic is subjected to external loading, the internal stresses due to thermal differences interact with the externally applied loads and can considerably reduce the stresses required for fracture. This simple equation expresses the experimentally observed fact that thermal anisotropy is much more effective in weakening specimens with a large grain size than specimens with a small grain size.

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POLYMERS

Many polymers fracture in a brittle manner below their glass transition temperature.

Frequently, the phenomena of crazing (increase in volume) and shear yielding (constant volume) precede actual fracture in a polymer. A craze is a region of a polymer in which the normal chain arrangement characteristic of the amorphous state has been transformed into drawnout molecular chains interspersed by voids. The crazed region is a very small percentage of the total region of the polymer

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Because the polymers show a significant amount of viscoelastic behavior at their service temperature, the strain rate has a profound effect on their fracture behavior.

In addition to brittle fracture, polymers undergo a mode of fracture involving crazing, in which the polymer chains ahead of a crack align themselves along the tensile axis.

Another mode of deformation that is a precursor to fracture is the phenomenon of shear banding in a 34 polymer.

Fracture toughness (Jc)

Fracture mechanism maps provide information about mechanical properties in a compact form. i.e. One can plot normalized tensile strength /E against the homologous temperature T/Tm.

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REFERENCIAS

Mechanical Behavior of Materials Marc Meyers and Krishan Chawla Second edition Chapter 7 Chapter 8 http://mae.ucdavis.edu/vlasaponara/equations_fracture_fatigue.pdf

GRACIAS!

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