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An Active EMI reduction IC WT6001


POWERELAB LIMITED
A Power Converter Technology Provider

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EMI in switching power supplies

All products must comply with various EMI regulations EMI reduction in switching power supply is mainly carried out by passive filters

filter chokes are big and dissipative Y capacitors introduce leakage current

It is desired to cut down filter requirement

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An active EMI IC is introduced

EMI reduction by active method It cuts down common mode current in SMPS A small SO8 IC that

cuts down common mode choke size reduces Y capacitor requirement eliminates thermal problem in common mode chokes increase SMPS overall efficiency reduces product cost

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Common mode current in SMPS

Common mode current is a major contributor of conducted EMI It is difficult to trace as its path is not readily seen on a circuit diagram

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Generation of common mode current in SMPS & the IC

LISN

Load

spectrum

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Safety requirement and EMI limits

The added Y-cap can effectively reduce the common mode current due to the parasitic capacitance of the load to the earth The maximum allowed value is limited by the leakage current requirement

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The IC provides an effective Y-cap booster

Equivalent to a Y-cap with very large value within the EMI concerned frequency range only Capacitance remains low in the leakage current test frequency range (50 800Hz) Provide effective EMI solution Greatly reduce the common mode filter requirement Reduce converter size and improve conversion efficiency Built-in electrical voltage surge protection which can easily pass EN61000-4-4 and EN61000-4-5 immunity standard Independent of converter power level, it can handle high power converters
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An application example 120W power adaptor

The original EMI filter design cannot pass the EN55022 class B limit Filter component:
2 x 20mm high mu toroid 2 x 0.15uF X cap 1 x 1n Y1-cap

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Original filter circuit


P1 1 TH1 F1 L1B L2B

C1

C2

P2 1

It is a commonly used filter configuration


L2B is wound with many turns which intends to suppress the low to mid-frequency common mode noise. Its leakage inductance together with C1 also provides differential mode noise filtering L1B is a single layer, bi-filer wound common mode choke for high frequency common mode noise filtering
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EMI measured results Original design


low line
EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak

high line
dBuV

dBuV

80 70 60
100V pri-sec Y1n U shielded original

80 70
230V pri-sec Y1n U shielded original

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

50 40 30 20 10 0 1
10/3/2005 11:00:49

EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz 10/3/2005 10:55:40

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

At 230Vac input, detailed measurement showed that the circled regions can only marginally pass or fail to meet the average limit line.
The lower frequency region seems to be caused by differential mode noise The high frequency region is caused by common mode noise
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EMI solution A better one using Y-cap booster


dBuV

dBuV

80 70
100V CB U shield SDMC SCMC .33uF

80 70
EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1
10/3/2005 16:31:32

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 1
10/3/2005 16:39:55

EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak 230V CB U shield SDMC SCMC .33uF EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

Y-cap booster is used to replace the 1n Y-cap In addition to the removal of L2B, L1B can be further reduced to a 9mm toroid with only a few turns

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Filter size reduction

Failed design even with more cost, loss and bigger size for the filter

Passed design using Y-cap booster with much smaller filter size that saves cost, power and space

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Filter comparison

Y-cap booster demo board

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Summary
Y-cap booster allow small Y-caps and meets leakage current requirement Greatly reduce product design period and resources It can be applied to any position with conventional Y-cap Significantly reduces the size and loss of common mode choke implies higher power density and efficiency EMI less sensitive to transformer winding capacitance implies more rooms for improving transformer coupling Very suitable for equipment required lower leakage current

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The IC WT6001

8 pin SO IC
PIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Function NC GND, ref to Vcc NC NC Out, to Y cap Vcc, max 15V Ref, set bias point In, feedback pin

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Observation of cancellation by an oscilloscope


A very useful way to observe the effectiveness of cancellation is by probing the waveform across the primary & secondary

Floating oscilloscope

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Observation of cancellation by an oscilloscope

Waveforms observed before & after application of the EMI IC

A 1 nF Y-cap across primary & secondary


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EMI IC circuit across primary & secondary


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Waveform shows cancellation effect


Class II no ground connection, Y-cap only

dBuV

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1
4/19/2006 4:30:16 PM
115Vac final Ycap EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

Waveform across primary & secondary


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High noise level


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Waveform shows cancellation effect


Class II no ground connection, EMI IC applied
dBuV

90 80 70 60 50 40 30
115Vac Final Test EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

20 10 1
4/21/2006 12:16:12 PM

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

Upper Ch : Waveform across primary & secondary Lower Ch : IC output


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Low noise level


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Waveform shows cancellation effect


Class I ground connection, Y-cap only

dBuV

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1
7/24/2006 4:12:12 PM
115Vac L IC Disabled EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

Upper Ch : Waveform across primary & secondary

High noise level


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Waveform shows cancellation effect


Class I ground connection, EMI IC applied

dBuV

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1
7/21/2006 11:57:28 AM
115Vac L int +BulkTx FluxBand BdFB10R EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Quasi-Peak EN 55022; Class B Conducted, Average

10
(Start = 0.15, Stop = 30.00) MHz

Upper Ch : Waveform across primary & secondary Lower Ch : IC output


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Low noise level


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Procedures to implement the IC to a switching power supply


Make sure that there is enough differential mode choke. Differentiate between Class I & Class II products to see whether the IC can apply
a.

1. 2.

b.

3.

4.

If there is significant reduction in common mode noise on the spectrum, apply the Class I or Class II circuit accordingly. Put in small common mode choke for high frequency noise suppression. The IC works up to 7 MHz.
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Class I product Put a big capacitor between the primary & secondary Class II product Short circuit the primary & secondary

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Trimming process
To cater for different power supply environment, the following components can be trimmed
Y-cap connected to the IC output (pin 5) Feedforward resistors in the circuit for class I products

Refer to datasheet for details

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Points to note
The IC works best when Vcc is close to 15V The power supply should be properly laid out for best effect

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Question & Answers

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