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Information Systems CS-507 Lecture 08

What are Systems?


A system is a group of elements that are integrated with the common purpose of achieving an objective.

Examples Purchases System Sales System

Components of a System

Input Elements: Raw data input to the computer system Processing: Computation, analysis Output Elements: Results of computation or analysis

Components of a System

Control mechanism: Comparison of actual with expected Feedback system: Corrective action Objectives: Expected / Ideal output

Types of System

Open loop system Closed loop system Open system Closed system

Systems
Every system that is constructed is
expected to generate some sort of output based upon the information fed into it.

Systems
The output is expected to be used to Evaluate system performance whether the output complies with stated objectives of the system Generate instructions for changes and improvements

Either in the output, or In the plans, or In the objectives


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Types of System
Examples.

Book Store
open system any and everyone is allowed to view and purchase the books available. School Library Closed system entry to the library is restricted to the students only.

Types of System

In an open system we refer to the connection it has to its environment by means of inflows and outflows of resources between the environment and organization. A closed system is a system that is dependant on internal resources and data for decision making rather than external environment.
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Types of System
THE BOOK STORE may have:
An Open loop if customer feedback is
not taken for the purchase of books for the store OR A Closed loop if Customer feedback/interest is taken into account when selecting the books to be purchased and displayed in the store.
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Types of System
The SCHOOL LIBRARY may have:
An Open loop if students feedback is
not taken for the kind of books to be stocked in the library. OR A Closed loop if students interest is the determinant criteria for the kind of books that are to be carried out in the library.

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Open Loop System


Business decisions made by management have an impact on the marketplace, and the impact of that decision is measured only indirectly by the company's computer systems.

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Open Loop System


By measuring the response within the openloop architecture, the marketplace response is quantified.

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Open Loop System


The impact of the corporate decision is felt indirectly through the reactions of the marketplace and is measured indirectly by the computer systems that are used by the company.

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Open Loop System


Such interactions between the decision process and the measurement of the effectiveness of the decisions made can be called an open-loop decision environment.

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Open Loop System


There may be factors other than the decision made by corporate management affecting the results achieved in the marketplace.

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Closed Loop System


Feedback is an integral part of the closed
loop system. The corrective action as a response to the output requires two other components

Control Mechanism Variance Analysis Objectives Predefined expected output from the system

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Closed Loop System


Closed Loop is a system where part of the output is fed back to the system to initiate control to change either the activities of the system, or input of the system

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Closed Loop System


In a closed-loop decision environment, the impact of decisions can be measured very precisely.

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Closed Loop System


In a closed-loop decision environment, management takes a decision, the computer system singles out exactly to whom the decision applies and a direct action is taken as a result of that decision. The response to the action can then be measured on a case-by-case basis. The results of the management decision can be measured quickly and directly.

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Closed Loop System


With a closed-loop decision environment, there is the possibility of having very quick and very accurate feedback on the decision process. The ability to make this assessment is very valuable.

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Information Systems CS-507 Lecture 08

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