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Wireless Sensor Networks

Made by-: Kalpit Kumar Sharma 6 SEM CS-A 0906810038

Contents: Introduction Defination WSN Architecture Routing mechanism Network Topology Communication Protocols Power Management Types of Sensors Conclusion Future Scope

Introduction
WSN are used to collect data from the environment. They consists of large number of sensor nodes and one or more Base Stations. The nodes in the network are connected via Wireless communication channels. Each node has capability to sense data, process the data and send it to rest of the nodes or to Base Station. These networks are limited by the node battery lifetime.

Few Wireless sensor networks shown below:-

Definition
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs):
Highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless nodes,

Deployed in large numbers, Monitors the environment or system by measuring physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity.

Node:
sensing + processing + communication

Applications of WSNs
Constant monitoring & detection of specific events Military, battlefield surveillance Forest fire & flood detection Habitat exploration of animals Patient monitoring Home appliances

Advantages
It avoid lot of wiring. It can accommodate new devices at any time. Its flexible to go through physical partitions.

Disadvantages
It is very easy for hackers to hack it as we cant control propagation of waves. Comparitively low speed of communications. Gets distracted by various elements like Blue-tooth. Still costly at large.

WSN ARCHITECTURE

Sensor Node Gateway Base Station

Wireless Sensor Network Architecture

Sensor node functionality


Each sensor node contains a computational module (a programmable unit) which provides computation ability, storage, and bidirectional communication with other nodes in the system Two advantages:
o o

They can be re-task in the field Easily communicate with the rest of the network

Gateway
Each sensor patch contains a gateway node Each gateway node can communicate with the sensor network and provides connectivity to the transit network

Transit Network
Can consist of a single hop link or a series of networked wireless nodes Each transit network design has different characteristics
o o o o o

Robustness Bandwidth Energy efficiency Cost Manageability

Base Station
Data storage for the collection of sensor patches WAN connectivity will be wireless Base-Remote link connection to the internet

WSN PROTOCOLS
Wireless sensor network routing protocols can be classified into following categories. Direct communication Flat protocols (Multihop) Hierarchical Routing Protocols

ROUTING MECHANISM

Multihop Routing

Direct Communication

Hierarchical Routing

Cluster Head

Network Topology
A communication network is composed of nodes, each of which has computing power and can transmit and receive messages over communication links. The basic network topologies are
1.Bus connected networks 2.Mesh networks 3.Star networks 4.Ring networks

TOPOLOGIES

Communication Protocols
Headers.
Each message generally has a header identifying its source node, destination node, length of the data field, and other information. This is used by the nodes in proper routing of the message. In encoded messages, parity bits may be included. In packet routing networks, each message is broken into packets of fixed length. The packets are transmitted separately through the network and then reassembled at the destination.

Switching
Most computer networks use a store-and-forward switching technique to control the flow of information. Each time a packet reaches a node, it is completely buffered in local memory, and transmitted as a whole. Switching techniques : 1.Wormhole Technique- It splits the message into smaller units known as flow control units or flits. The header flit determines the route. As the header is routed, the remaining flits follow it in pipeline fashion 2.Virtual-cut-through Technique- when the header arrives at a node, it is routed without

Routing
There may be multiple paths from the source to the destination. Therefore, message routing plays an important role. The main performance measures affected by the routing scheme are throughput (quantity of service) and average packet delay (quality of service). Types of Routing Schemes: 1.Token Ring 2.Fixed routing schemes 3.Adaptive routing schemes

Power Management
NEED - Power management is employed to increase the lifetimes of sensor nodes. Current research is in designing small MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) RF components for transceivers, including capacitors, inductors, etc. RF-ID (RF identification) devices are transponder microcircuits having an L-C tank circuit that stores power from received interrogation signals, and then uses that power to transmit a response.

TYPES OF SENSORS
Mechanical Sensors o The Piezoresistive Effect o The Piezoelectric Effect o Capacitive Sensors o Inductive sensors Optical Transducers o Photoelectric effect o Photoconductive sensors o Junction-based photosensors

Cont
Magnetic and Electromagnetic Sensors o Magnetoresistive effect o Magnetic Field Sensors

Thermal Sensors o Thermo-Mechanical Transduction o Thermoresistive Effects

CONCLUSION
The emergence of wireless sensor networks can finally bridge the gap between physical and digital worlds, with the effect as if to establish nervous system for the physical world. It also allows measurement and monitoring in the way that is much closer to the phenomenon than ever before, resulting in continuous and high fidelity of data collected.

Future Scope
Wireless sensor network has the potential to trigger the next revolution in computing. While its applications and potential benefits can spread far and beyond, and could finally break the barrier between physical and digital worlds to allow disappearance of computation.

References

Wikipedia Google

F. L. LEWIS Associate Director for Research Head, Advanced Controls, Sensors, and MEMS Group Automation and Robotics Research Institute The University of Texas at Arlington 7300 Jack Newell Blvd. S Ft. Worth, Texas 76118-7115 http://arri.uta.edu/acs

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