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Conceptual Framework of Industrial Engineering

Sasaran
Memahami disiplin Teknik Industri baik yang terkait dengan:
Cakupan keilmuan, bidang garapan dan profesi Perkembangan pola pikir, keilmuan dan keahlian

Materi
Conceptual Framework of IE Evolution & Development of IE

Engineering

Science
Object : Natural System Artificial System Phenomena : Determistic Det./Probabilistic Output : Theory/Knowledge Product/service Performance : Truth Benefit Validity : Absolute Relative Start : Curiosity Need/Problem Profession : Scientist Engineer

Industrial Engineering
Integrated System Prob/Uncertainty Value Added Efficiency Contextual Need/Problem Industrial Engineer 4

Science
Prime objective: increase knowledge of natural system Research (Scientific Method)
Formulate Hypothesis Execute Experiment Analyze Result Generalize Hypothesis Theory/Law (New Knowledge) Publish the New Knowledge

Basic Knowledge And Tool


Basic knowledge
Logic Creativity

Tool
Analysis Synthesis

Process
Scientific Research
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Engineering
Prime objective: use the knowledge to design and develops usable devices, structure and processes for better human life

Design Process
Identification of Need Problem Definition Search Constraint Criteria Alternative Solution Analysis Decision Specification Communication

Basic Knowledge And Tool


Basic knowledge
Mathematics Natural Sciences

Tool
Analysis Synthesis

Process
Applied Research Design 8

Basic Engineering Process


Symptom/Need Problem (Incl.Outcome)

Analysis(Incld. Exptation)

Synthesis of Alt.Solution

Decision ( Best Altv.) Solution, System or Method

Characteristic Of Engineer

Solve Problem Analyze Design System


Creativity Analysis Synthesis
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Engineering Function
Research Development Design Production &Testing Construction Operation

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Engineering Era
Early
Era : Before 1750 Knowledge : -Mathematics -Physics

Modern
- After 1750 - Not Only Mathematics & Physics
* Chemical

* Molecular * Social Sciences

Object

: Physical System

- Not Only Physical System * Life System


Abstract

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Early Engineering Era


Egyptian Engineering (3200 BC) Mesopotamian Engineering (2000 BC) Greek Engineering (500 BC) Roman Engineering (320 BC) Oriental Engineering European Engineering
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Modern Engineering Era

Big Five Engineering


Civil Mechanical Electrical Chemical Industrial Engineering

Newer Engineering
. Nuclear . Computer . Bioengineering . Environmental . Etc.
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Big 5 Disciplines
Military Engineering

Civil Engineering Mechanical Engineering


Mathematics + Physics Mechanical Principle Steam Engine

Electrical Engineering
Mathematics + Physics Electrical Science Telegraph: Samuel Morse Carbon filament lamp: Thomas Edison

Chemical Engineering
Mathematics + Physics + Chemistry Mathematics +Physics +Man Synthetic Material Integrated System

Industrial Engineering
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Why IE Was Born ?


As a Result of Industrial Revolution Need for Technically Trained People Who Could Plan, Organize, and Manage the Operations of Large Complex System Need to Increase Productivity and Efficiency of Operation System
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Pioneers Of IE
Adam SMITH Charles BABBAGE Eli WHITNEY Henry TOWNE Frederick W TAYLOR Frank B GILBERTH Lillian GILBERTH
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Adam SMITH
Wealth of Nations (1776)
Specialization of Labor
Division of the task in pin making into 4 separate operations increased output by a factor of almost 5 10 worker could produce 48.000 pins per day
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Charles BABBAGE
On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacture (1832)
motion and time study division of labor

Result of factory visit in England and USA(early 1800) Observed the manufacture of straight pins that:
involve 7 distinct operations measured the cost and time of performing each operation Money Could Be Saved Using Woman and Children

Critics : Do not attempt to improve the work methods or reduce the operation time
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Henry TOWNE
The Engineer As Economist (1886)

Stressed the Need for Engineers to Be Concerned With the Profitability Effect of Their Decisions

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Frederick Winslow TAYLOR


(1856-1915) FW Taylor was Influenced by Towne and Wentworth 1874 : Machinist Apprentice in the Hydraulic Work 1983 : Mechanical Engineer From Stevens Institute and Work at Midvale Steel Company 1881 : Began Study of Metal Cutting 1895 : Presented A Piece Rate System at ASME Meeting 1903 : Presented Shop Management 1909 : Presented Principle of Scientific Management

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Principle of Scientific Management


1. Develop a science for each element of a mans work, which replaces the old rule of thumb method 2. Select scientifically and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas previously he chose his own work methods and trained himself as best as he could 3. Cooperate heartily with the men so as to ensure that all of the work being done is in accordance with the principles of the science which has been develop 4. There is almost an equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and the workmen. The management takes over all work for which they are better fitted than the workman.
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Relationship of Industrial Engineering to Other Engineering and Scientific Disciplines


Logic

Statistics
Electrical Engineering

Quality & Reliability Operation Research Computer & Inf.Sci


Control Theory

Mathematics

Physics

Civil Engineering
Military Engineering

Mechanical Engineering
Psychology and Sociology

Early Industrial Engineering (Scientific Management) Productivity Science Early Management Philosophy

Industrial Engineering

Ergonomics

Manufacturing Engineering
Chemistry

Economics

Chemical Engineering

Physiology

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Industrial Engineering ?
Industrial Engineering Is Concerned With the Design, Improvement, and Installation of Integrated Systems of People, Material, Information, Equipment, and Energy. It Draws Upon Specialized Knowledge and Skill in the Mathematical, Physical, and Social Sciences Together With the Principles and Methods of Engineering Analysis and Design to Specify, Predict, and Evaluate the Results to Be Obtained From Such System

Object

Knowledge

Skill

Job
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Object
Integrated System

People/Man

+
Material + Equipment + Information + Energy
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Schematic Representation of Integrated System


Environment Boundary Man
Machine

Input
Mat

Out-put

Feed-back

: Interaction

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Types of Research

Basic Research - Curiosity


- Theory/Explanation - Neutral - Public Domain Discovery

Applied Research
- Need/Problem - Product/Service/Method - Purposive - Private Domain
Invention
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Knowledge
Mathematics Physics Social Sciences

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Skill
Method of Engineering Analysis Design

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Job
Design Installation Improvement

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Performance
Efficiency

Effective

Min Cost

Objective Achievement/Actual
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Contextual

2+2=?
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What Design IE Do ?
Integrated System Industrial System (Manufacturing System)

Human Activity System

Management Control System


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What Does IE Do ?

Production Operations

Management System

Corporate Services
*Comprehensive Planning *Policies & Procedures * Performance Measurement * Analysis

* Product &Services * Information System * Manufacturing Process * Financial &Cost System * Facilities * Personnel * Work Methods & Standards * Production Planning & Control

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Evolution and Development of Industrial Engineering Dicipline

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Chronology Of Development In The Evolution Of IE


Macro View Micro View
Operation Research Industrial Engineering Scientific Management Industrial & System Engineering

Interchangeable Time Part Accounting Studi

Piece Work

Layout SQC

Net- Optimi- Autowork zation mation

CIM

1494

1750

1890

1900 1915
World War I

1929
Depres sion

1941
World War II

1958
Space Age

1980

1990

2000

Industrial Revolution

High Globalization Technology

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Relationship of Industrial Engineering to Other Engineering and Scientific Disciplines


Logic

Statistics
Electrical Engineering

Quality & Reliability Operation Research Computer & Inf.Sci


Control Theory

Mathematics

Physics

Civil Engineering
Military Engineering

Mechanical Engineering
Psychology and Sociology

Early Industrial Engineering (Scientific Management) Productivity Science Early Management Philosophy

Industrial Engineering

Ergonomics

Manufacturing Engineering
Chemistry

Economics

Chemical Engineering

Physiology

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IE Thought
Scientific Management Adm & Behavior Management Management Science Systemic & Integrated

Man-Machine System

Human and Organization

Optimization and Modeling

Integrated System

End of 18 Century

End of 18 Century

Beginning of 20 Century

Mid of 20 Century

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Obyek dan Keilmuan Teknik Industri


Obyek
Work Station

Komponen
Man, Machine Material

Keilmuan
Ergonomy Eng. Economy Psychology Inventory, PPC Quality Control Lay out, OR & Modeling Management Leadership Behavior Science

Kinerja
Productivity Efficiency QCD

Manufactur Man, Machine Material

Company

Labor, Facility Material Labor, Material Infrastructure

ROI, IRR, ROE

Industrial System

Policy Quality Systemic Approach Welfare


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Perkembangan Teknik Industri S/D 1950


TOKOH-TOKOH:
Adam Smith (1776) : Specialisation, productivity Charles Babbage (1832): Pembagian kerja Frederick W. Taylor (1905): Scientific management Frank & Lilian Gilberth (1912): Micro-motion study Fayol : The 14 Principle of Management

ORGANISASI:

Society to Promote the Science of Management (1912), The Taylor Society (1915), Society of Industrial Engineers (1917). Wealth of Nations: spesialisasi / keahlian untuk produktivitas Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers: pembagian kerja Principles of Scietific Management Human Factors: micro-motion economy Principle of Management

KONSEP-KONSEP:

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Perkembangan Teknik Industri 1950 - 1970


AIIE : American Institute of Industrial Engineers (1948)
BIDANG PERHATIAN:
Teknik tata Cara Pengukuran Kerja Pengendalian: Produksi, Persediaan, Mutu, Beaya, Anggaran Evaluasi Jabatan, Sistem Pengupahan: analisis jabatan, analisis kinerja, upah perangsang, administrasi pengupahan Rancangan dan Fasilitas Pabrik: tata letak, pengadaan dan peremajaan peralatan, perancangan produk, perkakas, peralatan.

SARANA:

Statistika, Penelitian Operasional, Psikologi Industri

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Perkembangan Teknik Industri 1970 - 1990


AIIE menjadi IIE
BIDANG PERHATIAN:
Bidang Industri, : Antariksa, Bank dan Keuangan, Industri Bidang Sistem Manusia dan Informasi : Komputer dan
Elektronika, Pemerintahan, Seni Grafis, Pelayanan Kesehatan, Retail, Industri Baja, Transportasi dan Distribusi, Utilitas

Sistem Informasi, Ekonomi Teknik, Ergonomi, Hubungan Kerja dan Industri, Manajemen, Pengukuran Kerja, Tatacara.
dan Perencanaan Fasilitas, Sistem Manufaktur, Penelitian Operasional, Pengendalian produksi dan Persediaan, Pengendalian Mutu, Keandalan.

Bidang Sistem Produksi : Manajemen Energi, Perancangan

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Perkembangan Sejak 1990


TOPIK-TOPIK BARU:
CIM : Computer Integrated Manufacturing DSS : Decision Support System JIS : Just-in-Time Process Planning Perkembangan Variasi dari Sistem Produksi, Penelitian Operasional, Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia, dsb. Knowledge-based Management, dll. TOPIK-TOPIK LAMA TETAP BERKEMBANG: Ergonomi, dsb.

DIDASARI OLEH PERKEMBANGAN KOMPUTER DAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI


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Proyeksi Perkembangan Abad Ke -21


SANGAT DIPENGARUHI OLEH TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI:

PERUBAHAN POLA KERJA, GAYA HIDUP, TRANSAKSI: Kerja individual, outsourcing / networking, modal maya Internet driven : E-commerce, e-mail, distance learning & services KEPEMIMPINAN MASA DEPAN:

Perubahan pola kerja, gaya hidup dan bentuk transaksi Perubahan gaya kepemimpinan dan manajemen Pergeseran pengendali kekuasaan ekonomi dan politik

PENGENDALI KEKUASAAN:

Visioner, Kreatif, Transformatif, Komunikatif, Memberdayakan, Integratif-Networking-Sinergis, High-Touch & High-Tech, Antisipatif, Adaptif, Kompeten. Bergeser dari Pimpinan Negara ke Pimpinan Pengendali Informasi

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