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Technology Guide ONE

Click to edit Master subtitle style Computer Hardware

Hardware refers to the physical equipment used for the input, processing, output and storage activities of a computer system.

Hardware consists of:

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Central processing unit (CPU) Primary storage Secondary storage Input technologies Output technologies Communication technologies

The Central Processing Unit


Central processing unit (CPU) performs the actual computation or number crunching inside any computer. Microprocessor
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Control unit Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) Registers

Central Processing Unit (CPU)


How the CPU Works (continued)

Fetch, Decode and Execute


Intel demonstrations

Advances in Microprocessor Design

Moores Law: microprocessor complexity would double every two years.

Factors affecting chip speed


Word length Clock speed (Megahertz and Gigahertz) Data bus line Data bus width

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Evolution of Computer Power/Cost

Computer Memory
Two basic categories of computer memory:
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Primary Storage Secondary Storage

Memory Capacity
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Bit Byte
In this picture, one byte, 01001000, represents the letter H
Kilobyte (KB): approximately one thousand bytes. Megabyte (MB): approximately one million bytes (1,048,576 bytes, or 1,024 x 1,024). Gigabyte (GB): actually 1,073,741,824 bytes (1,024 x 1,024 x 1,024 bytes). Terabyte: One trillion bytes. Petabyte: One thousand terabytes. Exabyte: One thousand petabytes. Zettabyte: one thousand exabytes.

Primary Storage

Primary storage or main memory stores three types of information for very brief periods of time:

Data to be processed by the CPU Instructions for the CPU as to how to process the data Operating system programs that manage various aspects of the computers operation

Primary storage takes place in chips mounted on the computers main circuit board, called the motherboard.

Main Types of Primary Storage

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Registers Random access memory (RAM) Cache memory Read-only memory (ROM)

Primary Storage

Register MRAM Cache

Internal workings of personal computer

Hard disk drive

CPU board with fan

Floppy disk drive


Primary versus Secondary Memory

Secondary Storage
Memory capacity that can store very large amounts of data for extended periods of time.
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Magnetic tape (sequential access) Magnetic disks (direct access) Solid-state drive (SSD), sometimes called a solid-state disk or electronic disk, is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store data

Magnetic Tape

Magnetic tape reel Magnetic tape cartridge

Hard Drive (Magnetic Disks)

Hard Drive

Optical Storage Devices


Optical storage devices: A form of secondary storage in which a laser reads the surface of a reflective plastic platter.
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Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) Digital Video Disk (DVD), Blue Ray Disk

Flash Memory Devices

Flash memory Flash memory devices Thumb drive

Flash Memory Devices

Thumb Drive

Sony Microvault Tiny Drive

Evolution of Man and Storage

Paper Computer Card

Red Room, Computer Science University of Waterloo, circa 1976 Paper Computer card reader (IBM) and operator

Evolution of Man and Storage, Contd.

Computer Hierarchy
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Supercomputers Mainframe Computers Midrange Computers Workstations Notebooks and Desktop Computers Ultra-mobile PCs Computing devices

NASA Supercomputer

Mainframes and Mid-range computers

IBM System Z mainframe

IBM iSeries midrange computer

Desktops, Laptops, Notebooks

Dell desktop

IBM Thinkpad laptop (now Lenovo)

HP notebook

Ultramobile PC

Tablet PC

Typically have a touch screen or pen-enabled interface, runs an adpated version of a desktop operating system
Asus Eee Pad Transformer 2

Apple IPad3?

Input and Output Technologies


Input technologies allow people and other technologies to put data into a computer. The two main types of input devices are:

human data-entry devices include keyboards, mouse, trackball, joystick, touchscreen, stylus, and voice recognition source-data automation devices input data with minimal human intervention (e.g. barcode reader) l Speed up data collection l Reduce errors l Gather data at the source of a transaction or other event

Input and Output Technologies


Output generated by a computer can be transmitted to the user over several output devices and media, which include:
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Monitors Printers Plotters Voice

Weve come a long way!

Keypunch machine

Punch card

The Multitouch Screen

Jeff Han presents the multitouch screen at the TED talks.

Microsoft Seadragon
Microsoft Seadragon is a very interesting interface. See a demonstration here.

The Maltron Keyboard

Innovations in Hardware Utilization

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Server Farms Grid computing (SETI@Home, volunteer computing Utility computing Nanotechnology (see these slides)

Strategic Hardware Issues


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How do organizations keep up with the rapid price and performance advancements in hardware? How often should an organization upgrade its computers and storage systems? Will upgrades increase personal and organizational productivity? How can organizations measure such increase?

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

Extended and adapted by John H. Walker