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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

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CONTENTS
Introduction

Types

and description Key aspects Modern waste management systems Recommendation Conclusion

WHAT IS WASTE..?

Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse, garbage, or junk) is unwanted or unusable materials. According to United Nations Statistics Division(UNSD) it is defined as

"Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that


is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals

TYPES:
Municipal Solid Waste(MSW) Construction Waste Industrial Waste Medical Waste Hazardous Waste (Radioactive , Electronic)

Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries . This includes building materials such as Insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE
Any liquid, gaseous, or solid waste resulting from any process of industry, manufacturing, trade, or business or from the development of any natural resource. Sources of industrial waste are: Chemical industries Metal and Mineral processing industries Nuclear power plants Thermal power plants

Hazardous Waste

KEY ASPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT


Waste disposal Waste processing Waste recycling Waste minimization

disposal

processing

recycling

minimization

WASTE DISPOSAL

Land filling Composting Incineration Anaerobic digestion Mechanical biological treatment

Incineration

Composting

Land Filling

Landfills
Machines compact the clay to meet required density and depth.

Looking right to left we find the bottom clay liner, the top double synthetic liner, and then gravel being applied by bulldozers.

PREVENTING GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN A LANDFILL


Liner

An adequate lining system is a necessary component for any landfill. The liner is designed as a barrier to intercept leachate and direct it to a collection system to prevent contamination of local groundwater.

CONCERNS OVER INCINERATION


Does the Fume Contain Dioxins?

Incineration recovers energy that would otherwise be lost Requires less land Reduces odor but Emits dangerous cancer causing compounds called dioxins

Anaerobic Digestion

Mechanical biological treatment

MODERN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

These three Rs saves money, energy , raw materials, land space and reduces pollution.

REDUCE:
Reduction in use of raw materials will correspondingly decrease the production of waste. Reduced demand for any metallic product will decrease the mining of their metal and cause less production of waste.

RE USE:

The refillable containers which are discarded after use can be reused. Making rubber rings from the discarded cycle tubes whic are used by the newspaper vendors , instead of rubber bands, reduces the waste generation during manufacturing of rubber bands.

Recycling is the breaking down of materials from waste streams into raw materials, which are then reprocessed either into the same material (closed loop) or a new product (open loop), generally including waste separation and material reprocessing.

recommendation
Keeping yards free of rubbish. Securing rubbish bins against scavenging dogs, rats and other animals. Not illegally dumping waste, especially hazardous and toxic waste. Dont dump your cell phone, recycle it. Educate people about effects and its prevention. Take part in community awareness campaigns. Segregate household waste Waste of one could be input or raw material for others

conclusion

Think Globally Act Locally

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