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Modeling Printed Antennas Using The Matlab Antenna Toolbox

Wajih Iqbal Clemson University Advisor: Dr. Martin


Background Integral equations and method of moments overview Formulating the antenna model LP patch antenna Future work


Graduate students usually use Ansoft HFSS for antenna modeling Too complicated and expensive for undergrads A much easier and user-friendly code has been developed by Makarov (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) called the Matlab Antenna Toolbox (MAT)

Background (contd)

The code is based on method of moments and is limited to about 7000 unknowns The code is reasonably precise for simple printed antennas I have modeled and studied 15 different antenna structures

Integral Equations and Method of Moments Overview

Statement of an Electromagnetic g nit c u d Boundary Conditionn o c y l t c e f rp ei rPt s n i h t

- 09


Consider an incident wave (with no z variation i.e. 2D problem)

x w

w -

Exs + Exi = 0

on strip

Formulation of an Integral Equation

E +E =0
s x i x

on strip
w 2 0

d2 Exs x = + k2 4 k dx 2
i x i 0


i x

I J bgbgk x x h dx J x H c K

e E = E sin e

jk x cos i

E = E
s x

x ( w, w )

The Electric Field Integral Equation

2 k 4k

d + dx

w w

R J bgbgk x x h dx S x H c T d bgk x x h U E bg x b , wg J bg c x H dx V = x w dx W
w 2 w 0
2 0 i x

J w = J w = 0
The current on the strip is the unknown to be determined. The unknown quantity is under the integral sign.

b g bg

Solution of Integral Equations (MoM)

Three Major Steps

Step 1: Approximate unknown (surface current) by means of a finite sum of N known functions each with an unknown coefficient.

J ( r ) I nf n (r )
n =1

Solution of Integral Equations (MoM)

Step 2: Substitute the approximation (Step 1) into the IE and establish a well-conditioned system of linear equations by enforcing the resulting equations over N subintervals which are within the interval where a solution is desired

J1Z11 + J 2Z12 + J Z13+ fJ(r)14= E1 J ( r) 3 I 4Z

n =1

n n

for subinterval 1

J1Z 21 + J 2Z 22 + J 3Z 23+ (substitute and apply testing function) J 4Z 24= E2 i for subinterval 2
w J Z + J bg + J Z + Jd Z w =d E i for subinterval 3 i 2 2 bg J3 x H 02 k x x dx = Ex x k 1 31 x H 0Z 32 x x 33 + 4 34 J k 2 3 dx dx w dx 4k w


J1Z 41 + J 2Z 42 + J 3Z 43+ J 4Z 44= E4

zbg c

bg c

for subinterval 4

U bg hV W

n =1

i J n Zmn = Em ,

m = 1,2, , N

Solution of Integral Equations (MoM)

Step 3: Solve the N by N linear system of equations from step 2 and thereby obtain values for the coefficients.

ii J nZmn [ Z mn ] = Em = Jn m [ ] 1

Z12 J Z11 Z11 1 J Z Z Z 22 2 21 21 = Z 32 J Z 31 Z 31 3 Z Z 42 J 41 Z 41 4

Z13 Z12 Z 23 Z 22 Z 33 Z 32 Z 43 Z 42

J1 Z13 Z14 E1 E1i i 14 J i i E2 Z 23 Z 24 E2 24 2 = ii Z33 Z 44 E3 J3 E3 44 i i Z43 Z 44 E J4 E4 4 44

Once we have found J(r) we can find all the radiation properties of the antenna

Why Printed Antennas?

Printed antennas are low-profile planar structures that utilize printed circuit board (PCB) technology They are compact, low cost, easy to manufacture and suitable for integration with electronic systems Multi-band operation can also be achieved by integrating several coupled printed antenna elements of different lengths and geometries on the same PCB Dimension can be smaller with higher dielectric GPS, Radar, Satellite communication, Military, cell phones, and wireless laptops

Execution Flow Chart

Create 2D geometry
2 k 4k

Create 3D geometry and feed

d + dx

w w

R J bgbgk x x h dx S x H c T d U x J bgbgk x x h V E bg x b , wg x H c dx = w dx W
w 2 w 0 2


Feeding Probe

i x

MoM Calculations

J ( r ) I n fn ( r )
n =1

Input impedance/ Return loss

n =1

i J n Zmn = Em ,

m = 1,2, , N
Patch Ground Plane

i Zmn J n = Em

Near field and far field properties

Formulating the Antenna Model

Feeding Probe

Linearly polarized patch antenna Patch is 30x40mm Ground plane is 50x60mm Substrate has r = 2.55

x1 0 11 .5 00 .5 03 .0 02 .0 01 .0 0 -0 1 .0 - .0 02 y - .0 03 -0 2 .0 -0 1 .0 x 0 02 .0 01 .0 z

Ground Plane

View without Dielectric



Feeding Probe

View with Dielectric

Side View

Ground Plane

2-D Mesh Projection

Patch Feed point

Ground plane

Volume Mesh Generation

Layer(s) properties Substrate structure Ground plane Vertical metal faces Feeding points Patch 3D model ready!

Properties of the Patch Antenna

Input Impedance
4800 unknowns took 1.5 hours for 50 frequency points (65sec for each point)

Solid line Matlab Dotted line Ansoft HFSS


Properties of the Patch Antenna

Return Loss

2.93 GHz

2.99 GHz

2.96 GHz

Bandwidth =

2.99 2.93 = 2% 2.96

Far Field Properties

Directivity (xz-plane)

Co-polar dominates

At 2.96GHz Front to back ratio is about 10dB

Far Field Properties

Total Directivity (dB) 3D Directivity

The maximum directivity is approximately 7.4 dB at zenith

Near Field Properties

y-Directed z-Directed Electric Field x-Directed

Near Field Properties

Surface Current Distribution (x-directed) (z-directed) (y-directed)

Future Work

Simulate more multiband antennas accordingly with future wireless communication needs Incorporate the genetic algorithm with the code for antenna optimization After convergence studies construct and test a multiband antenna in the spherical near field chamber


Dr. Anthony Martin Dr. Daniel Noneaker Dr. Xiao-Bang Xu Michael Frye


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