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GEARBOXES IN AUTOMOBILES

Academic session 2011-2012 SUBMITTED BY:CHANDRA BHAN SINGH HADA MOOL SINGH CHOUHAN NAGESH CHOUDHARY AMIT TIWARY BRIJESH RAJ (II yr. MECH. B.TECH IV SEM)

INTRODUCTION
Gearboxes are used in almost every industry right from

power to marine, and also include agriculture, textile, automobiles, aerospace, shipping etc. There are different types of gearboxes available for varying uses. These gearboxes are constructed from a variety of materials depending on their end use and the kind of industry they are being used in. The product has numerous industrial applications for providing high torque and smooth speed reductions. These gearboxes are also manufactured keeping certain specifications in mind, which will also vary depending on the application.

DEFINATION
A gearbox, also known as a gear case or gear head, is a gear

or a hydraulic system responsible for transmitting mechanical power from a prime mover (an engine or electric motor) into some form of useful output. It is referred to the metal casing in which a number of gears are sealed. Its also known as manual transmission. A gearbox is also a set of gears for transmitting power from one rotating shaft to another. Their main function is to convert the input provided by an electric motor into an output of lower RPM and higher torque.

FUNCTION
At low speeds, the torque produced by an I.C. engine is

very small, which increases with increase of speed, peaks at some optimum speed and starts decreasing beyond that. The transmission also provides a neutral position so that the engine and the road wheels are disconnected even with the clutch in the engaged position. A mean to back the car by reversing the direction of rotation of the drive is also provided by the transmission.

NECESSITY
Variation of resistance to the vehicle motion at various

speeds. Variation of tractive effort of the vehicle available at various speeds.

TOTAL RESISTANCE

Tractive effort
The curve 1,2 and 3 respectively in fig represent the tractive effort in first, second and top gears respectively.

Superimposing the total resistance and tractive effort curves for different gears: When tractive effort is greater than total resistance, than vehicle is accelerated. When the necessary speed has been obtained , we may shift into higher gears, because then the vehicle speed has to be simply maintained and no acceleration is required.

TYPES OF MANUAL TRANSMISSION


SLIDING MESH GEARBOX
CONSTANT MESH GEARBOX SYNCHROMESH GEARBOX

EPICYCLIC GEARBOX

SLIDING MESH GEARBOX


1.main drive gear 2.counter shaft 3.main shaft 4.I gear 5.II gear 6.III gear 7.top speed engaging dogs

In this type of gear box, gears are engaged and disengaged by sliding of the gear wheels. Gear wheels on the main shaft engage with gear wheels on the lay shaft or counter shaft by sliding themselves.

Sliding mesh gear box I gear position

Sliding mesh gear box II gear position

Sliding mesh gear box III gear position(TOP GEAR)

Sliding mesh gear box reverse gear position

Sliding mesh gear box Disadvantages


Only Straight cut (Spur) can be used. So more wear Straight-cut gears had to be matched in speed before being brought into mesh together. The result was a horrible grinding noise - crashing the gears, as it was known changing gear requires considerable skill

Constant mesh gear box

Constant mesh gear box


Constant-mesh gearboxes are quieter and slicker,

also less wear because of Helical gears More frictional losses due to meshing of all gears all time But you still have to match the spinning speeds before you could engage the chosen gear, i.e. need for double-de-clutching

Constant mesh gear box


Advantages of Constant mesh gearbox over Sliding mesh Gearbox:
Helical and herringbone gear can be employed in these gearboxes and,

therefore, constant mesh gearboxes are quieter. Synchronizing devices can be easily incorporated. Since the gears are engaged by dog clutches, if any damage occurs while engaging the gears, the dog unit members get damaged and not the gear wheels. By suitably designing the dog clutch, the gear changing can be made
easier.

Damage to the dog clutch is less likely because all the teeth are engaged

at a time.

Double de-clutching
This is to match the speed of the rotating parts of the

gearbox for the gear you wish to select to the speed of the input shaft driven by the engine. Once the speeds are matched, the gear will engage smoothly. To perform it, the clutch is pressed and the gearbox shifted into neutral gear. The clutch is released, the throttle is "blipped" which applies power to the disengaged gearbox, thus speeding it up internally. The clutch is pressed for the second time and the gear lever moved (smoothly) to the desired gear. The clutch is released again, and the drive continues. This operation is suitable for a down change. For an upchange, it is usually sufficient to allow the gear lever to rest momentarily in neutral and no "blip" is applied.

Synchromesh Gearbox

The green cone-shaped area is the syncho collar. It's attached to the red dog gear and slides with it. As it approaches the helical gear, it makes friction contact with the conical hole. The more contact it makes, the more the speed of the output shaft and freespinning helical gear are equalized before the teeth engage.

Synchromesh gear box


In a synchromesh gearbox, gears can freely rotate or be locked to the shaft

It consists of a sliding collar which bridges between two circular rings with teeth on them - one travels with the gear, one with the shaft. When the rings are bridged, the gear is locked to the shaft. To match the speed of the gear to that of the shaft as the gear is engaged, the collar initially applies a force to a cone shaped clutch which is attached to the gear. This spins the gear up or down in speed to match the shaft prior to engagement of the collar.

Epicyclic Gearbox

In such gear boxes epicyclic gear trains are employed to get the various gear ratios.

The characteristic feature of an epicyclic gearing is that at least one wheel not only rotates about its own axis but also rotates about some other axis.

Epicyclic Gearbox
Automatic gearboxes

typically use one or more compound planetary gearsets instead of chaining regular gearsets together. They look just like a regular planetary gearset from the outside, but inside there are two sun gears and two sets of intermeshing planet gears. There is still only one ring gear though.

Epicyclic Gearbox