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What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology
A wide ranging scientific field which includes the manipulation of living organisms that results in new products or processes by that cell.

How Old Is Biotechnology ?


10,000 BC Domesticating Crops

6,000 BC Brewing Beer

Domesticating Animals 8,000-9,000 BC

4,000 BC Leavening Bread 1940s Production of Antibiotics

1880s Production of Vaccines

1980s Use of genetically modified organisms

Discovered the Laws Governing the Genetic Inheritance of Traits by Scientific Experimentation

Founded Modern Genetics

How Old is Modern Biotechnology?

Genetically Modified Animals

1983 Transgenic Mice

1997 Cloned sheep

Modern Biotechnology

Molecular Biology - microbiology - biochemistry - cell biology Molecular Genetics Genetic Engineering: Moving a gene from one organism to another - chemical engineering - biomanufacturing

Genetically Modifying DNA


Integration of Foreign DNA into Existing DNA

Gene Manipulation and Introduction in Plant Biotechnology

Restriction Enzyme and Ligase

Examples of Plant Transformations

Biotechnology Industry
As of December 2003: There are 1,473 companies & 198,300 employees

300 Biotechnology drug products and vaccines are in clinical trials Biotechnology foods include papaya, corn and soybeans Environmental biotechnology used to clean up hazardous spills Forensic medicine is used for identification by DNA Fingerprinting Regulated by the FDA More than 323 million people worldwide have been helped by Biotech

Fermentation Vessels in Biomanufacturing Plant

Biopharmaceuticals Defined

Any biology-based therapeutic that structurally mimics components found in the body Includes: recombinant proteins, antibodies, peptides, antisense nucleotides, therapeutic genes, therapeutic vaccines

Biotechnology Applications in Health and Medicine


Protein Pharmaceuticals Vaccines & Therapeutic Agents Diagnostics: Protein or DNA Based Gene Therapy Stem Cell Research Cancer Treatment

Biotech Products in Use

Epogen,neupogen (Amgen) TPA, Insulin (Genentech) Interferon Beta (Biogenidec) Algucerase (Genzyme)

Anemia, chemotherapy effects Blood clot remover, diabetic treatment Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Gauchers Disease lysosomal storage genetic defect

Gene Therapy

Insertion of a new healthy gene into the organism to provide needed (usually) proteins, hormones etc. Gene is carried into the host by a viral vector that has been disabled Can provide relief for many genetic diseases Problems: Jessie Gelsinger, xscid babies immune responses, and cancer

Cancer Therapy

Factors that inhibit blood vessel growth Toxic chemicals delivered by antibodies to specific cancer cells Killer gene is delivered to tumor cells by specific binding to the cancer cell

Stem Cells

Can be used to replace damaged tissue Examples: Heart cells, Parkinsons disease and Pancreatic cells in Diabetes Ethical issues and lack of cells to work with have slowed this research