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# Final Review 16 April 2012

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Final Review

## Linear System and Non-Linear System

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Abstract
Block Diagram Quick Glance at Fuzzy Logic Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Control for Non-Linear Process

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## System Design using LabVIEW

System Response Conclusion
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Linear systems satisfy the properties of superposition and homogeneity. Any system that does not satisfy these properties is nonlinear. Linear systems have one equilibrium point at the origin. Nonlinear systems may have many equilibrium points.

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A nonlinear system is one that does not satisfy the superposition principle, or one whose output is not directly proportional to its input; a linear system fulfils these conditions. In other words, a nonlinear system is any problem where the variable(s) to be solved for cannot be written as a linear combination of independent components.

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Linear systems must verify two properties, superposition and homogeneity. Any function that does not satisfy superposition and homogeneity is nonlinear system. It is worth noting that there is no unifying characteristic of nonlinear systems, except for not satisfying the two abovementioned properties.

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The principle of superposition states that for two different inputs, x and y, in the domain of the function f,

f (x + y) = f (x) + f ( y)

The property of homogeneity states that for a given input, x, in the domain of the function f, and for any real number k,

f (kx) = kf (x)
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Many common process control problems exhibit nonlinear behaviour, in that the relationship between the controlled and manipulated variables depends on the operating conditions. When conventional PID controllers are used to control highly nonlinear processes, the controllers must be tuned very conservatively in order to provide stable behaviour over the entire range of operating conditions. But conservative controller tuning can result in serious degradation of control system performance.

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In view of the shortcomings of linear controllers for highly nonlinear processes we here develop a fuzzy based controller for a nonlinear process.

Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based decision making used for expert systems and process control.
Fuzzy logic is a technique to embody human like thinking into a control system. A conical tank level process which is a nonlinear process is taken up for study and the fuzzy based controller is implemented using LabVIEW.

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LabVIEW can be controlled using Speech Recognition facility in Windows 7 operating system.

The level of the process can be controlled through any computer in a network using LabVIEW built-in Web Server.

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Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based decision making used for expert systems and process control.
Fuzzy logic differs from traditional Boolean logic in that fuzzy logic allows for partial membership in a set. A fuzzy controller can be designed to emulate human deductive thinking, that is, the process people use to infer conclusions from what they know. Traditional control approach requires formal modeling of the physical reality.
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Fuzzy logic suits control problems that cannot be easily represented by mathematical models. Weak model Parameter variation problem Unavailable or incomplete data Very complex plants Good qualitative understanding of plant or process operation

Because of its unconventional approach design of such controller leads to faster development / implementation cycles.

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A rule base is the set of rules for a fuzzy system. The rule base is equivalent to the control strategy of the controller.

Fuzzification is the process of making a crisp quantity fuzzy. Defuzzification is the conversion of a fuzzy quantity to a
precise quantity, just as fuzzification is the conversion of a precise quantity to a fuzzy quantity.

The output of a fuzzy process can be the logical union of two or more fuzzy membership functions defined on the universe of discourse of the output variable.

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PID and Fuzzy Logic Tool kit Control Design and Simulation Tool kit Internet Tool kit Report Generation Tool kit

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The conical tank level process is a nonlinear process due to the variable cross sectional area and the outlet flow has a inverse square relationship with liquid level.

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Level sensors detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders. The level measurement can be either continuous or point values. Continuous level sensors measure level within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a certain place, while point-level sensors only indicate whether the substance is above or below the sensing point.

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A current to pressure converter (I/P) converts an analog signal (4 to 20 mA) to a proportional linear pneumatic output (3 to 15 psig). Its purpose is to translate the analog output from a control system into a precise, repeatable pressure value to control pneumatic actuators/operators, pneumatic valves, dampers, vanes, etc.

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Fuzzy logic is a method of rule-based decision making used for expert systems and process control. To implement real-time decision making or control of a physical system, we wired acquired data to a fuzzy controller. We used outputs of the fuzzy controller with DAQ analog output hardware to implement real-time process control.
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Mamdani type fuzzy systems employ fuzzy sets in the consequent part of the rules. Similar to classical PID controller a fuzzy PID controller has the following structure:

## U(k)= U(k-1) + U(k)

Where, (U(k) control action)
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U(k) is obtained using a fuzzy rule base that provides incremental control action which is a function of two variables, error(e) and e(change in error). Classical PID controller is linear. Fuzzy PID controller is non-linear. Error (e) Change in error (e) Fuzzy set Fuzzy set

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Linguistic Variables

Universe of discourse

## Level Values (cm)

Linguistic variables

## Error (e) Change in error (e) Controller output (U)

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Negative Very Large Negative Large Negative Medium Negative Small Zero Positive Small Positive Medium Positive Large Positive Very large
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NVL NL NM NS ZE PS PM PL PVL
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## Triangle Membership Function:

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In the Center of Area (CoA) defuzzification method, also called the Center of Gravity (CoG) method.
The fuzzy controller first calculates the area under the scaled membership functions and within the range of the output variable.

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The fuzzy logic controller then uses the following equation to calculate the geometric center of this area.

where CoA is the center of area, x is the value of the linguistic variable, and xmin and xmax represent the range of the linguistic variable

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RULE

NVL

NL

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PL

PVL

## DNVL UNVL UNVL UNVL UNL

DNL DNM DNS DZ DPS DPM DPL DPVL UNVL UNVL UNL UNVL UNL UNL UNL UNM UNM UNS UZE UNL UNM UNM UNS UZE UPS UNL UNM UNM UNS UZE UPS UPM UNL UNM UNM UNS UZE UPS UPM UPM

UNL
UNM UNM UNS UZE UPS UPM UPM UPL

UNM
UNM UNS UZE UPS UPM UPM UPL UPL

UNM
UNS UZE UPS UPM UPM UPL UPL

UNS
UZE UPS UPM UPM UPL UPL

UZE
UPS UPM UPM UPL UPL UPVL

UPVL UPVL

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## = Set Point Process Variable

= Current Error Previous Error

e Where,

= Error, denoted as NVL, NL, NM, NS, ZE, etc., = Change in Error, denoted as DNVL, DNL, DNM, DNS, DZE, etc., = Controller Output, denoted as UNVL, UNL, UNM, UNS, UZE, etc.,
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## Error (e)[Left] Error Change (e)[Right] Controller Output(U)[Bottom]

System Characteristics at Normal Operating Conditions Inlet Flow 225 lph (max). Outlet valve Partially Open.

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## System Response to Negative Error

Observations

Faster Response to Set Point Variation. System shows Oscillatory Behaviour at Lower Set Point Values.
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## System Response to Large Set Point Variations

Observations: System Response: Moderately Fast. Better Tracking of Set Point Variations. Minimal Offset. Stable Control Action.
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## System Response to Lower Set Point Variations

Observations: Better Set Point Tracking. Stable System Response.
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In this project, a fuzzy controller was designed and implemented for conical tank level process. The performance of the controller was analyzed under various conditions and the fuzzy system was tuned accordingly. The nonlinear process was effectively controlled with good stability at all operating ranges. However, for large process upsets the system did not have expected performance. It is necessary to do some optimization in the future.
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Timothy Ross, Timothy J. Ross, (1995) Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, 3rd Edition, Wiley Publications. Zhang, Huaguang, Liu, Derong, (2006) Fuzzy Modeling and Fuzzy Control, 13th Edition, Springer Publications. George J. Klir and Bo Yuan, (1995) Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall. Jiuping Xu and Xiaoyang Zhou, (2011) Fuzzy-Like Multiple Objective Decision Making, 1st Edition, Springer. Prof. Dr. Dr. H.c. Hans-Jiirgen Zimmermann, (1995) Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems, International Series in Intelligent Technologies. Earlcox,(1994) The Fuzzy Systems Handbook: A Practitioner's Guide to Building, Using, and Maintaining Fuzzy Systems, AP Professinal. K.M. Hangos, J. Bokor, G. Szederknyi, (2004) Analysis and Control of Nonlinear Process Systems, Springer. Michael L. Luyben, William L. Luyben, (1997), Essentials of Process Control McGrawHill. Jeffrey Travis, Jim Kring, (2006), LabVIEW for Everyone: Graphical Programming Made Easy and Fun, Third Edition, Prentice Hall. Rick Bitter, Taqi Mohiuddin, Matt Nawrocki, (2001), Labview Advanced Programming Techiniques, CRC Press. 16/04/2012 Final Review
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