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The lands of Turkey are located at a point where Asia, Africa and Europe are closest to each other, and straddle the point where Europe and Asia meet (video!) Turkey, as a country roughly rectangular in shape, it is a peninsula Because of its geographical location, the mainland of Anatolia has always found favor throughout history, It is the birthplace of many great civilizations It has also been prominent as a center of commerce because of its land connections to three continents and the sea surrounding it on three sides.

Turkey has two European and six Asian countries for neighbors along its land borders. Turkey is generally divided into seven regions: the Black Sea region, the Marmara region, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, the East and Southeast Anatolia regions
Marmara has the highest population density of all the regions. There are significant differences between the coastal areas and those inland, in terms of both geographical features and economic and social aspects

HISTORY OF TURKS AND TURKEY History before the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923

The beginning of Turkish history is two thousand B.C.

Huns Gokturks Uigurs Kyrgyzs Bulgarian Turks Avars Khazars Pechenegs Cumans Karahanids Ghaznayids...etc. Seljuks Ottoman Empire

OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1299-1923)

Following the weakening of the Anatolian Seljuk State, several beylics from various Turkish tribes emerged in Anatolia The Ottoman Beylic succeeded The Ottomans who fought against the neighboring Byzantine State They captured Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II

During the reign of Sleyman (1520-1566) the Magnificent, The borders of the Empire extended from the Crimea in the North to Yemen and Sudan in the South, and from Iran and the Caspian Sea in the East to Vienna in the Northwest and Spain in the Southwest However, the Ottoman Empire lost its economic and military superiority vis--vis Europe

Europe developed rapidly with the Renaissance and the geographical discoveries starting with the sixteenth century The First Constitutional Period in 1876, which coincided with the reign of Sultan Abdlhamid II (1876-1909) It provided a constitution in the Western model for the first time

The territories of the Ottoman State, which had allied with Germany in the First World War (19141918), were occupied by Britain, France, Russia and Greece following the Mondros Armistice signed in 1918 The occupation of the homeland and the helplessness of the Istanbul government left no other choice but resistance for the Turkish people in Anatolia and Thrace

The National War of Independence (1919-1923)

The National War of Independence was an effort to create a new state from the ruins of an Empire which had completed its life. the proclamation of the Republic in 1923 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is the new leader

Ataturk father of the Turks

The Reforms by Atatrk

1. Political Reforms
Abolishment of the Sultanate (1 November 1922) Declaration of the Republic (29 October 1923) Abolishment of Caliphate (3 March 1924)

Social Reforms
Women were given equal rights with men (1926-1934) The Reform of Headgear and Outfit (25 November 1925) Closing of dervish lodges and shrines (30 November 1925) The surname law (21 June 1934) Abolishment of nicknames, pious and royal titles (26 November 1934) Adoption of the International calendar, time and measurements (1925-1931)

Educational and Cultural Reforms
Adoption of the new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928) Establishment of the Turkish Language and Historical Societies (19311932) Organization of the university education (31 May 1933) Introduction of modern fine arts


The Republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state Loyalty to the nationalism of Ataturk The official language of the Turkish State is Turkish The capital is Ankara Sovereignty is vested in the nation

The Republican Era Constitutions

The 1924 Constitution The 1961 Constitution The 1982 Constitution
unconditional and unrestricted sovereignty is vested in the nation The people exercise their sovereignty directly through elections, and indirectly through the authorized organs within the framework of the principles laid down in the Constitution The legislative, executive and judiciary are the organs which use sovereignty

The legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) (550-seat) Members are elected for a five year term Election threshold is 10% Political parties deemed anti-secular or separatist by the judiciary can be banned.

Executive power and functions are exercised and carried out by the Government, President of the Republic, (Prime Minister) and the Council of Ministers, in conformity with the Constitution and the laws A president is elected every seven years by the Grand National Assembly The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government

The ministers are selected by the Prime Minister and all are appointed by the President The President may dismiss Ministers upon the proposal of the Prime Minister The Turkish Grand National Assembly may cause the government to fall by vote of no-confidence, and the President has the power to seek renewal of the elections

Judicial power is exercised by independent courts and it is independent of the executive and the legislature

The power of the legislative and executive powers, are limited and balanced with the judiciary as the result of the principle of the supremacy of law Legislative procedures and activities, and procedures of execution are dependent on judicial control The Constitution is equipped with the rules which guarantee this system

Political parties are indispensable components of democratic life. However, the Constitution guarantees the independence of the State, the inseparable unity of the country and nation, the national sovereignty, advocacy of the freedom of democracy, secularism, human rights and freedoms and the principle of the legal state. It also foresees the closing, by the Constitutional Court, of the political parties which have regulations, programs or activities that are in violation of these principles and components.

President and Prime Minister

President- Abdullah Gul Prime Minister- Recep Tayyip Erdogan


Political Parties
AK Parti (Justice and Development Party) 46.76% of the vote CHP (The Republican People's Party) 20.64% MHP (Nationalist Action Party) 14.33% Independents (Pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party) SP (Happiness Party)

Turkey is a member of the following International and Regional Organizations
the United Nations the Council of Europe the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) the World Trade Organization (WTO) the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization (BSEC) the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) the Developing 8 (D-8) membership process of accession to the EUetc.


in 1999, where Turkey was officially recognized as a candidate state destined to join the Union on the basis of the same criteria applied to the other candidates On 17 December, 2004 the Brussels European Council, concurring with the recommendation of the Commission, pronounced the decision that the European Union would open accession negotiations with Turkey, on 3 October 2005. 3 October, 2005, full membership negotiations started There are 33 negotiations chapters.


The political resolve demonstrated by Turkey for a settlement paved the way for a renewed initiative by the former UN Secretary General Mr. Kofi Annan. Annan Plan was an opportunity to end the division of Cyprus the Turkish Cypriots, for the sake of a compromise and settlement, overwhelmingly voted in favor of the Annan Plan, 65 % YES the Greek Cypriots, rejected the solution with a No vote of 76%,

Terrorism, whether carried out individually or collectively, poses a serious threat to international peace and security 1984, Turkey has experienced the terrorism perpetrated by the PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party) Abdullah Ocalan is the leader of this terrorist group the serious threat to Turkeys security posed by PKK terrorist organization harbored in north of Iraq continues unabated and creates a source of contention with this neighboring country European Union in May 2002 included PKK as a separatist/terrorist organization