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Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Development

Variable
Anything that can take on differing or varying values. Examples: Production units Absenteeism Motivation

Types of Variables
The dependent variable The independent variable The moderating variable The intervening variable

Dependent Variable
It is the main variable that lends itself for investigation as a viable factor. For Example: 1. An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in a particular bank. 2. A marketing manager wonders why the recent advertisements strategy does not work.

Independent Variable
The independent variables are those that are deliberately manipulated to invoke a change in the dependent variables. For Example: 1. A manager believes that good supervision and training would increase the production level of workers. 2. A consultant is of the opinion that much benefit would accrue by buying and selling at the appropriate times in a financial environment where the stocks are volatile.

Moderating Variable
The moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship. That is the presence of a third variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and the dependent variables.

Moderating Variable
Scenario 1: A manager finds that off the job classroom training has a great impact on the productivity of the employees in her department. However, she also observes that employees over 60 years of age do not seem to derive much benefit and do not improve with such training.

Moderating Variable
Scenario 2: A visitor to a factory observes that the workers in the packing department have to interact with one another to get their jobs done. The more they interact, the more they seem to tend to stay after hours and go to the local restaurant for coffee. However, the women packers, even though they interact with others as much as the men, do not stay late, nor do they visit the restaurant after work hours.

Intervening Variable
An intervening variable is one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it. The intervening variable surfaces as a function of the independent variables opening in any situation and helps to conceptualize and explain the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

Intervening Variable
Scenario 1: Failure to follow accounting principles causes immense confusion, which in turn creates a number of problems for the organization. Those with vast experience in bookkeeping, however are able to avert the problems by taking timely corrective action.

Intervening Variable
Scenario 2: The manager of Haines company observes that the morale of employees is low She thinks that if working conditions are improve, pay scales raised, and the vacation benefits made attractive, the morale will be boosted. She doubts however, if an increase of pay scales would raise the morale of all employees. Her perception is that those that have supplemental incomes will just not be turned on by higher pay, and only those without side incomes will be happy with increased pay with resultant boost of morale.

Exercise
Make up three different situations in which motivation is: 1. Independent variable 2. Intervening variable 3. Moderating variable

Theory
Theories are constructed in order to explain, predict and master phenomena (e.g. relationships, events, or the behavior). In many instances we are constructing models of reality. A theory makes generalizations about observations and consists of an interrelated, coherent set of ideas and models.

Formulating the Theoretical Framework


The theoretical framework of the study is a structure that can hold or support a theory of a research work. It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study exists.

Thus, the theoretical framework is but a theory that serves as a basis for conducting research.

Theoretical Framework
1. Consists of the variables considered relevant to the study 2. Shows the nature and direction of relationships 3. Sometimes show the positive and negative relationships according to previous researches 4. Consists of a diagram to easily comprehend the theorized relationships.

Exercise
of theoretical framework
With airline deregulations, there were price wars among various airlines. Delta Airline faced charges of air-safety violations when there were several near collisions in mid air and one accident that resulted in 137 deaths. Four important factors that seemed to have influenced these are poor communication among the cockpit crew members themselves, poor coordination between ground staff and cockpit crew, minimal training given to the cockpit crew,and management philosophy that encouraged a decentralization structure. It would be nice to know if these factors did indeed contribute to the safety violations, and if so to what extent.

It is a tentative prediction or explaination of two or more variables The hypothesis is the most important mental tool the research has. It is important integral component of modern scientific research

K. SYED, MPT (Ortho)

It provides bridge between theory and reality and in this sense unifying of two domains It provides powerful tool, for the advancement of knowledge since they enable the researcher to objectively enter new areas of discovery It provides direction for any research Endeavour by tentatively identifying the anticipated outcome. It is guide to the thinking process and the process of discovery It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions
K. SYED, MPT (Ortho)

Hypothesis builds researches confidence in his results Sound hypothesis gives direction to the inquiry A good hypothesis enriches theory

K. SYED, MPT (Ortho)

It should be clear and precise It should be capable of being tested It should state relationship between variables It should be limited in scope and must be specific It should be understandable It should be consistent with most known facts It should be testable within amenable time

K. SYED, MPT (Ortho)

Directional hypothesis Non directional hypothesis Research hypothesis (Alternative) Statistical hypothesis (Null)

K. SYED, MPT (Ortho)

Types of Hypothesis
1. If-then statements:
A hypothesis can also test whether there are differences between two groups with respect to any variable.

Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently. If employees are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently.

Types of Hypothesis
2. Directional and Non directional Hypothesis: If terms such as positive, negative, more than, less than are used, then the hypothesis are directional because the relationship between variables is indicated. For Example: The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction level of employees.

Types of Hypothesis
Non-Directional Hypothesis: No indication of the direction of the relationship is given. For example: There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction.

Types of Hypothesis
Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Alternate Hypothesis

Directional Vs Nondirectional
Research Question for Differences: Do boys like reading more than girls? Null Hypothesis: Boys do not like reading more than girls. Alternative Hypothesis: Boys do like reading more than girls. Research Question for Differences: Do boys' and girls' attitude towards reading differ? Null Hypothesis: Boys' and girls' attitude towards reading do not differ. Alternative Hypothesis: Boys' and girls' attitude towards reading differ.