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GROUP OF BIOLOGY

ANIMAL-LIKE PROTIST
1.

FLAGELLATE PHYLUM

Animal-like protist are often called protozoan. Protozoan comes from Latin word, that is Protos means the first and zoon means animal. So, protozoan means the first animal.

ANIMAL-LIKE PROTIST

According to their movement organ Protozoa are grouped into 4 phylum, that is : 1. Rhizopod Phylum 2. Ciliate Phylum 3. Flagella Phylum 4. Sporozoan Phylum

FLAGELLATE PHYLUM
Flagellates are cells with one or more whiplike organelles called flagella. Some cells in animal may be flagella, like Euglena. Higher plants and fungi dont produce flagella cells, but the closely related green algae.

Many protist take the form of single-called flagellates. They are found in most line of eukaryotes.

The characteristic of flagellate : 1. Have one or more flagella (whip-like projection) 2.Include unicellular 3. Found in kingdom protist 4. life as parasite, or free life in sea water and fresh water habitat. 5. Heterotrophic protista 6. Have contractile vacuoles

The Reproduction of Flagellate Reproduction of flagellates is done asexually by self division in cross section. Some flagellates make reproduction sexually. The members of flagellate include

Trypanosoma,Trichomonas & Leishmania.

THE FUNCTION OF FLAGELLATE In protist and microscopic animals, flagella are generally used for propulsion. They may also used to create a current that brings in food. In most eukaryotes, one or more flagella are located at or near the anterior of the cell. Some flagellates, like Dinoflagellates are important primary producers (photosynthesisers) in lakes and ocean.

SPOROZOAN PHYLUM

Sporozoans (Phylum Apicomplexa) are parasitic protistans that must live part of the time inside specific cells of host species.

All produce a sporozoite stage that is very often transmitted by insects. Malaria, caused by Plasmodium and transmitted by mosquitoes, is a serious worldwide disease.

1. Adult sporozoans have no


structures for movement 2. Form spores 3. Most are parasitic using one or more hosts 4. Immature sporozoans are called sporozoites & live in body fluids of hosts 5. Have phases is the spore formation 6.Have phases is the spore

THE REPRODUCTION OF SPOROZOAN

There 2 kinds of Sporozoan reproduction: Asexual reproduction that forms spores Sexual reproduction that forms gamet

Sporozoans reproduce by multiple fission, that is producing more than 2 individuals. Reproduction of sporozoan examples is in plasmodium forms a life cycle between asexual cycle and sexual cycle. The life cycle of plasmodium is in Anopheles mosquito that contains a lot of sporozoid (asexual spores)

Anopheles mosquito that contains a lot of sporozoid (asexual spore) bites human. It begin by entering it saliva into the human body as anticoagulant, and of course the human body containts a lot of sporozoid.

Then the sporozoite in retuculum endotelium (usually in the hepar) undergoes a cycle but does not attack yet, after that the sporozoite enters the red blood cell. In here sporozoite grows and devidees to makes asexual spores.

The asexual spore can reproduce again in red blood sare or enter the body of Anopheles mosquito which bites (sucks bloods) the human who suffer from maralia.

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