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Historical background of Islamic civilization

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Mongol Invasions

Mongol leader Chingiz Khan expanded from around Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia towards China and Islamic world and set a trail of bloodshed In 1219 Muslim powers in Persia and Central Asia were dismantled Defeated German Polish and Hungarian Armies
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Mongols sIn Goden horde in Russia

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Hulegu Khan(grand son of Chingez Khan) conquered Baghdad in 1258 thus Symbol of orthodox Sunni caliphate finished. A faineant Abbaasid Calipahte was set up in Cairo soon after under Mamluks protection The various branches of Mongols gradually adpted islam
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Khanate was set up in Iraq and Persia

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Domination of the world from Ukraine to Korea by Mongols opened the new doors of contact and cultural exchanges between East and West Chinese paper and other artistic techniques impressed the Persian art and reached to Europe. According to Friedman this was start of globalization.
5/1/12 Mamluks became hurdle for allince

Mamluks, the Qipchaq Turks salves defeated Mongols from Palestine and Syria Ejection of Crusadres from Levant coast and reduction of Christian kindom of Armenia helped them to get the favour of orthodox Muslim ulemmas They remained successful to set friendly political and commercial relations with Christian powers e.g 5/1/12

Hierarchy in military slavery fro sultan downwards Slaves ruling over free men or rising above the highest position with out social discrimination Economical downfall of Mamluks in 1500 A.D
Circassian and Caucasus/reluctance to use gun powder/poor fighting 5/1/12 /successive conquest of Egypt and Syria

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Ottoman turks/Contemporay of Elizabeth I and constant terror for Christian Europe

Present terror of World by Richard Knolly Continuous threats from Anatolia and Byzantium/Group of Ghzis by Ottomans 1354 A.D Crossing Dardanelles in to 5/1/12 Europe cutting off the constintnipol

Conquer of Hungary Mohacs

Balkan Provinces Danger for Austria very heart of Europe Timur lane/ Tatar vs Ottomans 1453 Conquerig of Constintpole Conquer of Egypt and Syria by Mehmod Hungary and Iraq Safaavids Across the midterranean Ireland and ice land
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Janissries highly trained troops from Christian

Utilization of subject poulation Firepower and gunpowder scret of Ottomans success and power Defeat to Turks and Maluks

Spanish and Portguese from north african coaslands Potguese from indian ocean Russia from golden hordes

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Good governace Autocratic Reasons of defeat Internal chaos Political and economic pressure of west contributed to break down of ottoman turks Ibne khaldun sees Turks as gods 5/1/12 concern for the welfare of muslims

Safavids

Safavids Midieval empire of shii faith in Midieval century in is Sufi line of faith Conversion in to regime os shii

Shifting of capital from Azerbaijan to Qazvin then to Isphhan Abbas (Afghani) defeated
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