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SSG 516 Mechanics of Continua

Lecture Two Kinematics: Study of Displacements & Motion the various possible types of motion in themselves, leaving out the causes to which the initiation of motion may be ascribed constitutes the science of Kinematics.ET Whittaker
Helpful Reading: Bower pp 13-27, Fakinlede 146-177

Kinematics
Kinematics is an organized geometrical description of displacement and motion. The emphasis here is the fact that displacement and motion are independent of the material constitution. While we may use the terminology of solid mechanics the concepts and the ensuing relationships are independent of the particular materials involved. We shall also define the concepts of strain and strain rates as deriving from displacements and motion.

Simple Shear of a Cube


Our cube, for simplicity will have the dimension of unity and with one edge at the origin. Let 1 , 1 represent the initial Cartesian coordinates in an undeformed body. We consider the transformation, 2 1 = 2 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 , , , tan 1 + tan 0 0 0 1 1 1 And for small values of , we can easily see that, 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 , , , 1 + 0 0 0 1 1 1

Horizontal Shear
Similar to the above, the transformation, 2 1 = 2 0 1 1 1

Transforms the edges as, 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 + , , , 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 The square element in the above diagram has therefore undergone a shearing in the horizontal axes as shown.

Mathematica Code

General Deformation
We have seen how a simple tensor can be used to transform a simple shape into a new shape. We are now to generalise this concept using the figure (Bower) below:

Transformation equations
As a result of the transformation, such that, (, ) = + (, ) Using the linear gradient operator we defined last term, we can take the gradient of the above equation and obtain, grad (, ) = grad + , (, ) = + grad , [In component form,

= +

Recall that by definition, + , , = grad + , + ( ) So that as we can write that = Or in full in full component form, =

The Deformation Gradient


The equation, = transforms an element in the original configuration to . Note that while we have suppressed the dependency of the deformation gradient on the location and time, it is general a function of both. It is therefore more accurate to write, = (, ) This tensor contains all the necessary information about the deformation. Once the deformation gradient is specified for all locations and time, we can always find the new configuration based on an initial state and a given time .

Inverse & Multiple Transformations


The mapping = is necessarily one to one because of the physical implications. It necessarily has an inverse. Therefore, given a new configuration, we can obtain the old configuration that resulted in it, as = Furthermore, for two successive deformation gradients, and , = , and = we can easily see that, 2 1 = = or that =

Transformation of a line element

Volume as a triple product


Consider the simple parallelepiped shown here. The base area, A = sin is or = in index notation, this cross product is = the perpendicular height is cos so that the volume is = A cos = = =

Jacobian

The Jacobian of F
Recall that in component form, = + so that

the Jacobian determinant of the deformation, = det = det( +


This is a measure of the change in volume as a result of the deformation. If the three sides of a parallelepiped deform as, = , = and = , then 0 = and =

The Jacobian

Clearly, = = = det = 0

So that,

[To understand the above expression, note that in two-D, det F = 1 2 and that = det F. It is easy to work the 2-D version out manually so understand the 3-D]

= 0

Mass density
Furthermore, it is easily shown that mass density is related as =
0

This follows from the above derivation. Show this to be true.

Lagrangian Strain Tensor


1 = = 3! Differentiating wrt , we obtain, 1 = + + 3!

1 + + 3! 1 = + + 3! 1 = 2! The cofactor of =

The Right Cauchy-Green Tensor


The tensor T plays and important role in continuum mechanics. It is called the right CauchyGreen Tensor. The concept of strain is used to evaluate how much a given displacement differs locally from a rigid body displacement. Consequently, a strain function is a point function that vanishes in a state consisting of only rigid body displacements.

Strain Functions
We will introduce the two most common strain functions and demonstrate what they mean in one dimension: Lagrangian and Eulerian Strains.
First the Lagrangian Strain: = ( )
Notice that when there is no deformation, we can assume that the deformation gradient is the identity tensor (Why?). In this case, T = . Clearly = , the zero tensor.
1 2

First, show that

1 1 = = + + 2 2

For example let = 1, = 1:

1 1 = 11 11 + 21 21 + 31 31 11 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 = 11 + 11 + + + 11 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 = 2 + + + 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Eulerian Strain

1 = where is the deformation gradient tensor and is its inverse. If we take the coordinates , = 1, , 3 as the material coordinates and , = 1, , 3 as spatial coordinates, then simple chain rule implies,

= =

Eulerian Strain
We can therefore write that,
= If the unit vector along the deformed element is , then the length of the element is given by: = Similarly, in the undeformed system, we have: = 0 with as the unit vector aligned with the material element . In this case, we can write, =
= = 0
2 2

Eulerian Strain
The strain,
2 2 0 1 = = 2 2 2 2

2 =
1 ( 2

where is the Eulerian strain tensor, ). In component form, following the same arguments it may similarly be proved that in one dimensional strain,
2 2 0 = 2 = 20

Strain of a line element

Again, beginning with unit vectors , , = and = 0 . Recall that with the deformation gradient transformation,
= = 0 squaring, we have that,
2 2 = = 0 from which we can see that 2 2 2 2 0 = 0 0
2 (2 0 )
2 20

1 2

= 2 =

Infinitesimal Strain
2 ( 2 0 ) + 0 ( 0 ) 20 ( 0 ) ( 0 ) = = 2 2 2 0 20 20 20

Which is the elementary definition of strain. We can see from here that this definition is only approximately correct when strain is small and will not be a valid strain function if the difference between and 0 is appreciable. When that happens, we have a situation called geometric nonlinearity in the sense that a linear function no longer defines the strain-displacement relation

Infinitesimal Strain
Another way to arrive at this same conclusion is to note that for small strains, the second-order terms in the Lagrangian function
=
1 2

1 2

Is small so that,

Both the Lagrangian as well as the Eulerian strain become indistinguishable from small strain.

1 [ 2

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