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Sacred Heart University College of Business

BUS/IB 203 International Business Culture


Dr. Balbir B. Bhasin Dr. Balbir B. Bhasin

What is Management?

Management is a form of work Management is a form of work that involves that involves coordinating an organizations coordinating an organizations resources - human and capital resources - human and capital to accomplish organizational to accomplish organizational goals. goals.

Levels of Management

1. Top management 1. Top management 2. Middle management 2. Middle management 3. Supervisory management 3. Supervisory management

Functions of Management

Planning Planning Organizing Organizing Staffing Staffing Leading Leading Controlling Controlling

Roles of a Manager

Interpersonal - leader, figurehead, Interpersonal - leader, figurehead, liaison liaison Informational - monitor, disseminate, Informational - monitor, disseminate, represent represent Decisional - allocate resources, Decisional - allocate resources, negotiate, negotiate, problem solving problem solving

Management Skills

Conceptual skills - decision making, Conceptual skills - decision making, planning, organizing planning, organizing Human relations skills - understand people, Human relations skills - understand people, motivating, collaborating motivating, collaborating Technical skills - able to get a particular Technical skills - able to get a particular job done job done

What is International Management?

Process of developing strategies, Process of developing strategies, designing and operating designing and operating systems, and working with systems, and working with people around the world people around the world to ensure sustained to ensure sustained competitive advantage competitive advantage

What is International Business?

Profit related activities Profit related activities conducted around national conducted around national boundaries, ever changing. boundaries, ever changing.

What are the variables affecting the management function?

National variables - economic system, National variables - economic system, legal system, political system legal system, political system Socio-cultural variables - religion, education, Socio-cultural variables - religion, education, language language Cultural variables - values, norms, beliefs Cultural variables - values, norms, beliefs Attitudes - work, time, individualism, Attitudes - work, time, individualism, materialism materialism Response - motivation, productivity, ethics, Response - motivation, productivity, ethics, commitment commitment

End

Chapter 2

Culture & International Business Culture & International Business

What is Culture?

Set of commonly held values Set of commonly held values A way of life of a group of people A way of life of a group of people Includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, Includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and habits law, customs and habits Everything that people have, think and do Everything that people have, think and do as members of their society as members of their society An integrated system of learned An integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of any given society of the members of any given society

Cross Cultural Myths

Myth One: We really are all the same Myth One: We really are all the same Myth Two: I just need to be myself and Myth Two: I just need to be myself and everything will be okay everything will be okay Myth Three: I have to adopt the practices Myth Three: I have to adopt the practices Of the other culture to succeed Of the other culture to succeed
(Adapt rather than adopt) (Adapt rather than adopt)

US Values & Possible Alternatives

Beliefs - control vs. destiny Beliefs - control vs. destiny Change - action vs. accept Change - action vs. accept Attitude - practical vs. dreams aspirations Attitude - practical vs. dreams aspirations Approach/work ethic - hard work vs. luck Approach/work ethic - hard work vs. luck Promises - keep vs. perhaps Promises - keep vs. perhaps Time - depends on priorities Time - depends on priorities Obligation -company or family Obligation -company or family Employment - short term vs. lifelong Employment - short term vs. lifelong Meritocracy - best person vs. Meritocracy - best person vs. Other considerations Other considerations

(as seen by people of other countries)

Stereotypical American

Inconsiderate of other peoples cultures Inconsiderate of other peoples cultures Racially prejudices Racially prejudices Ignorant of other countries Ignorant of other countries Shallow, immature, nave Shallow, immature, nave Violent, aggressive Violent, aggressive Generous, forgiving Generous, forgiving Always in a hurry Always in a hurry Outgoing, friendly Outgoing, friendly Informal Informal Loud, rude, boastful Loud, rude, boastful Hard working Hard working Arrogant, proud, insensitive Arrogant, proud, insensitive Innovative Innovative Extravagant, wasteful, Extravagant, wasteful, Confident they have all the answers Confident they have all the answers

Culture is Learned

Culture is transmitted through Culture is transmitted through the process of learning and the process of learning and interacting with ones environment interacting with ones environment rather than through the generic rather than through the generic process process Primary Socialization Primary Socialization Cultures and Subcultures Cultures and Subcultures Secondary Socialization Secondary Socialization

Culture Universals

Common problems and common features Common problems and common features Economic systems Economic systems Marriage and family systems Marriage and family systems Educational systems Educational systems Social control systems Social control systems

Cultural Change

All cultures experience continued change All cultures experience continued change Cultural change is a selective process Cultural change is a selective process Cultural change through borrowing Cultural change through borrowing Cultural change through innovations Cultural change through innovations Cultural diffusion Cultural diffusion

Ethnocentrism
Tendency for people to judge Tendency for people to judge behavior by their own standards behavior by their own standards The belief that own culture is superior The belief that own culture is superior All people in all societies are ethnocentric All people in all societies are ethnocentric to some degree to some degree Ethnocentrism can contribute to prejudice Ethnocentrism can contribute to prejudice

Ethnocentrism

End

Chapter 3

Communicating across Cultures Communicating across Cultures Languages Languages

What is Communication?

Process of sharing meaning by transmitting Process of sharing meaning by transmitting messages - words and behavior messages - words and behavior Critical factor in cross cultural management Critical factor in cross cultural management Need for effective communication to: give Need for effective communication to: give information, share ideas, give orders, and to information, share ideas, give orders, and to motivate motivate Interpersonal issues: leadership, motivation, Interpersonal issues: leadership, motivation, group interaction, negotiation group interaction, negotiation

Barriers to Effective Communications

Semantics - different words have different Semantics - different words have different meaning to different people: fix, fag, shag meaning to different people: fix, fag, shag Jargon - technical terms Jargon - technical terms Acronyms and Abbreviations - culture, Acronyms and Abbreviations - culture, military military Perception - interpreting information, Perception - interpreting information, distortion distortion Emotions - breakdown in communication Emotions - breakdown in communication

The Need to Understand Language

1. There is a close relationship between 1. There is a close relationship between language and culture language and culture 2. Language is a precondition to success 2. Language is a precondition to success in international business in international business 3. Languages helps in understanding 3. Languages helps in understanding culture culture 4. Second language is first step to learning 4. Second language is first step to learning third and fourth language third and fourth language 5. Learning other languages helps us 5. Learning other languages helps us appreciate our own language (and culture) appreciate our own language (and culture)

What is Language?

Language is a symbolic code of Language is a symbolic code of Communications Communications Meanings attached to any word are Meanings attached to any word are totally arbitrary totally arbitrary Major languages of the world are: Major languages of the world are: Mandarin, Spanish, English, Bengali, Mandarin, Spanish, English, Bengali, Hindi, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, Hindi, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese, German, Wu German, Wu

The Influence of Culture on Language

The vocabulary of a language depicts The vocabulary of a language depicts what is considered important in that what is considered important in that culture culture Industrialized societies have more Industrialized societies have more Technological terms Technological terms Example: 7 words for bamboo in South Example: 7 words for bamboo in South India but none for snow India but none for snow

The Influence of Language on Culture

Language influences perception, Language influences perception, categorization and worldview categorization and worldview Language reflects values of the group Language reflects values of the group Example individualism in the US so Example individualism in the US so many words pertaining to self many words pertaining to self In Japan. we always comes before the In Japan. we always comes before the I indicating the collectivist approach I indicating the collectivist approach

Language Key Points for Business

The US is the only country where business The US is the only country where business people dont think its necessary to learn a people dont think its necessary to learn a foreign language foreign language Is it easier to speak or understand a foreign Is it easier to speak or understand a foreign language? language? Comprehension is a function of speed Comprehension is a function of speed Is it easier to speak or write a foreign Is it easier to speak or write a foreign language? language? Is there an international language of Is there an international language of business? business?

Avoiding Misunderstandings Across Language Barriers

Recognizing the symptoms: blank stares, Recognizing the symptoms: blank stares, unnatural stopping points in conversation, unnatural stopping points in conversation, feeling of not connecting feeling of not connecting What to do: explain the message in several What to do: explain the message in several different ways, use visual aids, slow down, different ways, use visual aids, slow down, avoid slang and idiomatic expressions, listen avoid slang and idiomatic expressions, listen to the other persons entire messagedont to the other persons entire messagedont assume anything, keep good notes, follow up assume anything, keep good notes, follow up

High Context vs. Low Context Cultures

Low context cultures: task oriented, Low context cultures: task oriented, communication is specific, elaborate, direct communication is specific, elaborate, direct and unambiguous. Swiss, German, American, and unambiguous. Swiss, German, American, French, British French, British High context cultures: based on relationships, High context cultures: based on relationships, rely on communication that is: indirect, rely on communication that is: indirect, ambiguous, nonverbal, and the context. ambiguous, nonverbal, and the context. Japanese, Chinese, Arab Japanese, Chinese, Arab In between: Italian, Spanish, Greek In between: Italian, Spanish, Greek

End

Chapter 4

Communicating across Cultures Communicating across Cultures The Nonverbal Dimension The Nonverbal Dimension

Function of Nonverbal Communication

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.

Helps convey feelings and emotional states Helps convey feelings and emotional states Elaborates on verbal messages Elaborates on verbal messages Governs the timing and turn taking Governs the timing and turn taking between communicators between communicators

Concerns: Concerns: 1, Same nonverbal cue carries different 1, Same nonverbal cue carries different meanings in different cultures meanings in different cultures 2. Different nonverbal cues carry the same 2. Different nonverbal cues carry the same meaning in different cultures meaning in different cultures

Nonverbal Cues

1. Facial expressions (smiles, frowns) 1. Facial expressions (smiles, frowns) 2. Hand gestures 2. Hand gestures 3. Posture 3. Posture 4. Touching 4. Touching 5. Scents or smells (perfume) 5. Scents or smells (perfume) 6. Color symbolism 6. Color symbolism 7. Clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics 7. Clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics 8. Artifacts (jewelry, fly whisks) 8. Artifacts (jewelry, fly whisks) 9. Graphic symbols 9. Graphic symbols 10. Silence 10. Silence

Non- verbal Language

Touching U.S. vs. Latin America Touching U.S. vs. Latin America Space U.S. vs. Japan Space U.S. vs. Japan Queues: U.S. vs. China vs. Britain vs. Japan Queues: U.S. vs. China vs. Britain vs. Japan Dress U.S. vs. Europe vs. Japan Dress U.S. vs. Europe vs. Japan Silence U.S.: a gap that must be filled Silence U.S.: a gap that must be filled - Japan preferable to conversation - Japan preferable to conversation

Nonverbal Language

Eye Contact: intermittent in U.S., Intense, Eye Contact: intermittent in U.S., Intense, Unbroken in Arab countries, Very little in Unbroken in Arab countries, Very little in Japan Japan Para Language: um, er, ah, hai Para Language: um, er, ah, hai Smiling, Smiling, Head movements: Bulgaria, India Head movements: Bulgaria, India Arm Movements: Italy vs. Japan Arm Movements: Italy vs. Japan Posture: U.S. vs. China Posture: U.S. vs. China Handshakes Handshakes

Cultural Variables

Stereotyping - assuming that all have same Stereotyping - assuming that all have same attributes attributes Language - literal or poor understanding Language - literal or poor understanding Kinesic behavior - posture, gesture, facial Kinesic behavior - posture, gesture, facial expression, eye contact expression, eye contact Oculesics - behavior of the eye during Oculesics - behavior of the eye during communication communication Proxemics - effect of proximity and space Proxemics - effect of proximity and space Paralanguage - how something is said Paralanguage - how something is said Time mono-chronic or poly-chronic Time mono-chronic or poly-chronic Context - in which the communication Context - in which the communication takes place takes place

Proxemics

Distance preferred by middle class US: Distance preferred by middle class US: Intimate distance - body contact to 18 Intimate distance - body contact to 18 Personal distance -18 to 4 feet Personal distance -18 to 4 feet Social distance - 4 feet to 12 feet Social distance - 4 feet to 12 feet Public distance- 12 to 20 feet Public distance- 12 to 20 feet

How to Manage Communication Effectively

Develop cultural sensitivity - be aware of self Develop cultural sensitivity - be aware of self and the other! and the other! Careful encoding - use proper words, gestures Careful encoding - use proper words, gestures Selective transmission - use proper medium Selective transmission - use proper medium Careful decoding of feedback - careful Careful decoding of feedback - careful interpretation of message interpretation of message Seek feedback - ask, verify, follow-up Seek feedback - ask, verify, follow-up

Greetings

When you shake hands, look them straight When you shake hands, look them straight In the eye and give em a good firm grip In the eye and give em a good firm grip Asia Mid East: gentle handshake Asia Mid East: gentle handshake Mexico/Latin America: palm slip/grasp thumb Mexico/Latin America: palm slip/grasp thumb Never shake hands with a woman in the Never shake hands with a woman in the Middle East and parts of India Middle East and parts of India Staring at someone is intimidating and Staring at someone is intimidating and disrespectful in many areas of the world, disrespectful in many areas of the world, especially Japan especially Japan Slight bows are appreciated in Asia Slight bows are appreciated in Asia Presenting business cards? Presenting business cards?

Touching

Touch: Middle East, Latin America, Italy, Touch: Middle East, Latin America, Italy, Greece, Spain/Portugal, Russia Greece, Spain/Portugal, Russia Dont Touch: Japan, U.S., England, Dont Touch: Japan, U.S., England, Scandinavia, Northern Europe, Australia Scandinavia, Northern Europe, Australia Middle Ground: France, China, India Middle Ground: France, China, India

Hands/Eyes/Arms/Feet

Where to place hands when eating? Where to place hands when eating? US: Beneath table US: Beneath table Europe: On top of table Europe: On top of table Eyes: Closed in Japan indicates concentration Eyes: Closed in Japan indicates concentration Eyelid pull in France and England Eyelid pull in France and England Arms: Folded arms universal defensive Arms: Folded arms universal defensive posture posture Hands on hip aggressiveness in Asia, Hands on hip aggressiveness in Asia, along with finger pointing along with finger pointing Feet: Remove shoes in Japan, India, Asia Feet: Remove shoes in Japan, India, Asia Do not show the soles of shoes in the Do not show the soles of shoes in the Middle East Middle East

End

Chapter 5

Contrasting Cultural Values Contrasting Cultural Values

(IBM data collected on 100,000 individuals in 40 countries)

Hofstedes Value Dimensions

Power distance - extent to which subordinates Power distance - extent to which subordinates accept authority accept authority Uncertainty avoidance - threatened by Uncertainty avoidance - threatened by ambiguous situations, prefer formal structure, ambiguous situations, prefer formal structure, feel safe and secure feel safe and secure Individualism vs collectivism Individualism vs collectivism Masculinity - assertiveness, materialism Masculinity - assertiveness, materialism Femininity - concern for society, others Femininity - concern for society, others

Trompenaars Findings

Obligation - universalism, pluralism Obligation - universalism, pluralism Emotional in relationship - neutral, affective Emotional in relationship - neutral, affective Involvement in relationship - specific, diffuse Involvement in relationship - specific, diffuse Legitimization of power and status Legitimization of power and status based on achievement and competency based on achievement and competency or based on position, age or education or based on position, age or education

Five Universal Problems

1. Human nature orientation: innately good 1. Human nature orientation: innately good or bad? or bad? 2. Man-nature orientations: mastery or 2. Man-nature orientations: mastery or harmony? harmony? 3. Time orientation: past, present or future> 3. Time orientation: past, present or future> 4. Activity orientation: individuals 4. Activity orientation: individuals accomplishment or personal traits? accomplishment or personal traits? 5. Relational orientation: individualism or 5. Relational orientation: individualism or collectivism? collectivism?

Cultural Dimensions

1. Individual-Collective dimension: the self 1. Individual-Collective dimension: the self first or the community? first or the community? 2. Equality-Hierarchy dimension: differences 2. Equality-Hierarchy dimension: differences in power or status or equality? in power or status or equality? 3. Tough-Tender dimension: what is success3. Tough-Tender dimension: what is successmaterial comforts or relationships? material comforts or relationships? 4. Uncertainty-Avoidance dimension: the 4. Uncertainty-Avoidance dimension: the need for un-ambiguity and predictability need for un-ambiguity and predictability of the future? of the future? 5. Time dimension: tight or loose? 5. Time dimension: tight or loose?

Time Dimension

Single Focus (American Western Europe, Single Focus (American Western Europe, Industrialized Asia): one task at a time; meet Industrialized Asia): one task at a time; meet deadlines, Lets get to work, Time is deadlines, Lets get to work, Time is money money Multi Focus (Southern Europe, Latin America, Multi Focus (Southern Europe, Latin America, Middle East): Simultaneous tasks, completion \\ Middle East): Simultaneous tasks, completion of task based on strength of relationship, of task based on strength of relationship, delays are expected, commitments are not delays are expected, commitments are not Written in stone Written in stone

Environment Dimension

Control Cultures (Western Societies): Go for Control Cultures (Western Societies): Go for it, Life is what you make it, The future can it, Life is what you make it, The future can be planned for be planned for Harmony Cultures (Asian Cultures): Dont Harmony Cultures (Asian Cultures): Dont rock the boat, Go with the flow rock the boat, Go with the flow Constraint Culture (Latin America, Middle Constraint Culture (Latin America, Middle East): Its a matter of fate, You take what East): Its a matter of fate, You take what life gives you life gives you

Action Dimension

Doing Cultures (American): Doing Cultures (American): God helps those who help themselves God helps those who help themselves If at first you dont succeed, try again If at first you dont succeed, try again Who are you? Answer with job title Who are you? Answer with job title Being Cultures (Latin America, Africa, Being Cultures (Latin America, Africa, Middle East, Southern Europe): Middle East, Southern Europe): Who are you? Answer with family Who are you? Answer with family description or philosophical outlook description or philosophical outlook

Competitive Dimension

Competitive Cultures (U.S., Western Europe, Competitive Cultures (U.S., Western Europe, Hong Kong, Mexico, Argentina, Japan): Hong Kong, Mexico, Argentina, Japan): Winner takes all Winner takes all Predominantly materialistic Predominantly materialistic We live to work We live to work Cooperative Cultures (Scandinavian Cooperative Cultures (Scandinavian Countries, Some Latin Countries, Some Countries, Some Latin Countries, Some European Countries, Parts of Asia): European Countries, Parts of Asia): Were in this together Were in this together We work to live We work to live

Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures

Individualist: USA, UK, Italy, Scandinavia, Individualist: USA, UK, Italy, Scandinavia, France, Germany France, Germany Intermediate: Israel, Spain, Japan, Argentina Intermediate: Israel, Spain, Japan, Argentina Collectivist: Brazil, Turkey, Mexico, Collectivist: Brazil, Turkey, Mexico, South America, Much of Asia. South America, Much of Asia.

End

Chapter 6

Negotiating Across Cultures Negotiating Across Cultures

Negotiations

a process between two or more parties aimed a process between two or more parties aimed at reaching a mutually acceptable agreement at reaching a mutually acceptable agreement Goal - to bring about a win-win situation Goal - to bring about a win-win situation where all parties benefit where all parties benefit Process: preparation, relationship building, Process: preparation, relationship building, exchange of task related information, exchange of task related information, persuasion, concession and agreement. persuasion, concession and agreement.

Variables in the Negotiation Process

Competitive process or problem solving Competitive process or problem solving approach? approach? How negotiators are selected - best qualified? How negotiators are selected - best qualified? How are persuasive arguments presented? How are persuasive arguments presented? Rational or emotional? Rational or emotional? Motivations? Personal, family, company, Motivations? Personal, family, company, country? country? Ability to take risk? Ability to take risk? Decision making process - individual or Decision making process - individual or collective? collective? Trust - handshake or legal document? Trust - handshake or legal document?

Effective Strategies for International Negotiators

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8.

Concentrate on long term relationships Concentrate on long term relationships Focus on interest behind the positions Focus on interest behind the positions Avoid reliance on cultural generalizations Avoid reliance on cultural generalizations Be sensitive to timing Be sensitive to timing Remain flexible Remain flexible Prepare carefully Prepare carefully Learn to listen Learn to listen Be patient! Be patient!

Eight Recommendations for Success In Global Negotiations

1. Do pre-work with the other side if possible, 1. Do pre-work with the other side if possible, possibly using cultural go-betweens possibly using cultural go-betweens 3. Develop a strategy to deal with the language 3. Develop a strategy to deal with the language barrier barrier 4. Use visual aids extensively, but check with 4. Use visual aids extensively, but check with cultural expert cultural expert 5. Be prepared for long negotiations 5. Be prepared for long negotiations 6. Decide on strategy for obtaining a written 6. Decide on strategy for obtaining a written agreement, where acceptable agreement, where acceptable 7. Know your walk away point 7. Know your walk away point 8. Avoid ethnocentrism 8. Avoid ethnocentrism

Confrontation

Expect less confrontation in high context, Expect less confrontation in high context, collectivist cultural settings collectivist cultural settings But, face is more important within the But, face is more important within the culture than outside it culture than outside it Disrespectful out-of-group behavior Disrespectful out-of-group behavior does not carry as many social issues does not carry as many social issues as the same behavior within the as the same behavior within the cultural group cultural group Agents or third parties can be helpful when Agents or third parties can be helpful when confrontation may be expected confrontation may be expected

End

Chapter 7

Coping with Culture Shock Coping with Culture Shock

What is Culture Shock?

It is the unpleasant consequences It is the unpleasant consequences of experiencing a foreign culture of experiencing a foreign culture Results in: Results in: confusion, surprise, disgust, confusion, surprise, disgust, panic, rejection, loss of self-esteem, panic, rejection, loss of self-esteem, and inability to function effectively and inability to function effectively

Manifestations of Culture Shock

1. Homesickness 1. Homesickness 2. Boredom 2. Boredom 3. Withdrawal 3. Withdrawal 4. Irritability 4. Irritability 5. Marital stress 5. Marital stress 6. Stereotyping 6. Stereotyping 7. Hostility 7. Hostility 8. Inefficiency 8. Inefficiency 9. Physical un-wellness 9. Physical un-wellness 10. Depression 10. Depression

Process of Adjustment: 4 Stages

1. Honeymoon stage: unrealistically positive 1. Honeymoon stage: unrealistically positive feelings and approach feelings and approach 2. Irritation and hostility: problems arise and 2. Irritation and hostility: problems arise and become insurmountable become insurmountable 3. Gradual adjustment: Passing of crisis 3. Gradual adjustment: Passing of crisis and gradual recovery and gradual recovery 4. Biculturalism: Full recovery and ability 4. Biculturalism: Full recovery and ability to function effectively in both cultures to function effectively in both cultures

Minimizing Culture Shock

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5.

Choose to stay at home and not enter IB Choose to stay at home and not enter IB Select the IB arena where adjustment Select the IB arena where adjustment can be made more easily can be made more easily Have a realistic understanding of issues Have a realistic understanding of issues and likely problems and likely problems Learn cross cultural coping skills Learn cross cultural coping skills language, religion, history, social language, religion, history, social environment environment Approach issues as opportunities to Approach issues as opportunities to learn and grow learn and grow

Monochronic People

Do one thing at a time Do one thing at a time Concentrate on the job Concentrate on the job Take time commitments seriously Take time commitments seriously Are low context and need information Are low context and need information Show great respect for private property, Show great respect for private property, seldom borrow or lend seldom borrow or lend Are accustomed to short term relationships Are accustomed to short term relationships

Polychronic People

Do many things at once Do many things at once Are highly distractible and subject to Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions interruptions Consider time commitments an objective Consider time commitments an objective to be achieved, if possible to be achieved, if possible Are high-context and already have info Are high-context and already have info Borrow and lend things often and easily Borrow and lend things often and easily Have tendency to build lifetime Have tendency to build lifetime relationships relationships

End

Chapter 8

Developing Global Managers Developing Global Managers

Global Management Goals

1. Maximize long term retention of 1. Maximize long term retention of international managers so that company international managers so that company can develop a top management team with can develop a top management team with global experience global experience 2. Understand, value and promote role of 2. Understand, value and promote role of women and minorities in order to maximize women and minorities in order to maximize underutilized resources, and underutilized resources, and 3. Work effectively within local labor laws 3. Work effectively within local labor laws

The Need to Develop Global Managers

1. Difficult to control geographically 1. Difficult to control geographically dispersed operations dispersed operations 2. Need for local decision making independent 2. Need for local decision making independent of home office of home office 3. Suitability of managers from alternative 3. Suitability of managers from alternative sources sources

Staffing Alternatives

1. Ethnocentric staffing - fill staff position 1. Ethnocentric staffing - fill staff position from HQ from HQ 2. Polycentric staffing - local managers, 2. Polycentric staffing - local managers, host country nationals host country nationals 3. Global staffing - recruiting the best 3. Global staffing - recruiting the best within and outside the country within and outside the country (transpatriates) (transpatriates) 4. Regio-centric staffing - from the region 4. Regio-centric staffing - from the region

Training Global Managers

1. Area studies - history, geography, politics, 1. Area studies - history, geography, politics, economy economy 2. Language training 2. Language training 3. Sensitivity training 3. Sensitivity training 4. Field experiences )host family, immersion) 4. Field experiences )host family, immersion) 5. In-country training 5. In-country training

Developing Skills for Global Managers

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5.

Communications skills Communications skills Personality traits Personality traits Motivation Motivation Family circumstances Family circumstances Cross cultural training Cross cultural training

Managing Process for Global Managers

1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.

Preparation Preparation Adaptation Adaptation Repatriation - reverse cultural Repatriation - reverse cultural shock shock 4. Transition - mentor program 4. Transition - mentor program

Developing Global Management Teams

Objective - how to develop and empower Objective - how to develop and empower intercultural groups and task forces at all intercultural groups and task forces at all levels of an organization to achieve set goals. levels of an organization to achieve set goals. Synergy advantages: different perspectives, Synergy advantages: different perspectives, share experiences, share technology share experiences, share technology Disadvantages: language problems, Disadvantages: language problems, different management styles, complex decision different management styles, complex decision making process making process