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Basics to Management

Review Questions
1. Explain the NEW concept of Management Functions. 2. Describe the different kinds of managers and their responsibilities.

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Learning Objectives: What is Management?


After discussing this section you should be able to: 1. describe what management is. 2. explain the four functions of management.

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What is Management?
Management is..
Coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively

Managers are concerned with:

Efficiency
Getting the most output from the least amount of input; doing things right

Effectiveness
Doing those work activities that help the organisation reach its goals; doing the right things
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Management Functions
What do Managers do?
Functions
Planning Organising Leading Controlling
defining goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans arranging and structuring work

working with and through people


evaluating whether things are going as planned

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Management Functions

Old Planning Organizing Leading Controlling

New Making Things Happen Meeting the Competition Organizing People, Projects, and Processes

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Making Things Happen


Determining what you want to accomplish. Planning how to achieve those goals. Gathering and managing the information needed to make good decisions. Controlling performance.

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Meeting the Competition


Consider the threat from international competitors. Have a well-thought-out competitive strategy. Be able to embrace change and foster new product and service ideas. Structure their organizations to quickly adapt to changing customers and competitors.

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Organizing People, Projects, and Processes

Consideration of people issues. Consideration of work processes.

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Learning Objectives: What Do Managers Do?


After discussing this section, you should be able to: 1. describe different kinds of managers. 2. explain Mintzbergs managerial roles 2. identify the expected skills of managers

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Kinds of Managers

Top Managers Middle Managers First-Line Managers Team Leaders

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Top Managers
Responsible for: Creating a context for change. Developing attitudes of commitment and ownership in employees. Creating a positive organizational culture through language and action. Monitoring their business environments.

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Middle Managers
Responsible for: Planning and allocating resources to meet objectives. Coordinating and linking groups, department and divisions. Monitoring and managing the performance of the subunits and individual managers who report to them. Implementing the changes or strategies generated by top managers.

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First-Line Managers
Responsible for: Managing the performance of entry-level employees. Teaching entry-level employees how to do their jobs. Making detailed schedules and operating plans on middle managements intermediate range plans.

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Team Leaders
Responsible for: Facilitating team performance. Managing external relationships. Internal team relationships.

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Mintzbergs Managerial Roles

Interpersonal Roles

Informational Roles
Decisional Roles

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Mintzbergs Managerial Roles


Interpersonal Roles
Roles that involve people (subordinates and persons outside the organisation) and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature.
3 Interpersonal Roles:

Figurehead Leader Liaison


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Interpersonal Roles
Roles Description
Symbolic head: obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature

Examples
Greeting visitors; signing legal documents

Figurehead

Leader

Responsible for the motivation of subordinates; responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties

Performing virtually all activities that involve subordinates

Liaison

Maintains self-developed network of outside contacts and informers who provide favours and information

Acknowledging mail; doing external board work; performing other activities that involve outsiders
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Mintzbergs Managerial Roles


Informational Roles
Roles that involve collecting, receiving, and disseminating information.

3 Informational Roles:

Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson


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Informational Roles
Roles Description
Seeks and receives wide variety of internal and external information to develop thorough understanding of organisation and environment

Examples
Reading periodicals and reports; maintaining personal contacts

Monitor

Disseminator

Transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organisation

Holding informational meetings; making phone calls to relay information

Spokesperson

Transmits information to outsiders on organisations plans, policies, actions, results, etc.

Holding board meetings; giving information to the media

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Mintzbergs Managerial Roles


Decisional Roles
Roles that entail making decision or choices.

4 Decisional Roles:


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Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator


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Decisional Roles
Roles Entrepreneur Description
Searches organisation and its environment for opportunities and initiates improvement projects to bring about changes

Examples
Organising strategy and review sessions to develop new programs

Disturbance Handler

Responsible for corrective action when organisation faces important, unexpected disturbances

Organising strategy and review sessions that involve disturbances and crises

Resource Allocator

Responsible for the allocation of organisational resources of all kinds making or approving all significant organisational organisational decisions

Scheduling; requesting authorisation; performing any activity that involves budgeting and the programming of subordinates work

Negotiator
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Responsible for representing the organisation at major negotiations

Participating in union contract negotiations

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What Companies Look for in Managers (Managerial Skills)


Technical Skills
Specialized knowledge

Human Skills
Ability to work with others

Conceptual Skills
Ability to see the whole organization

Motivation to Manage (Leadership Skills)


A desire to be in charge
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Technical Skills

The skills associated with performing specialised task within a company.

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Human Skills

The skills associated with understanding and being able to get along with other people.

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Conceptual Skills

The skills associated with being able to think in abstract, to diagnose and analyse different situations, and to see beyond the present.

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Motivation to Manage
(Leadership Skills)

The desire and skills to be in charge and motivate others to work to meet specific objectives.

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Relative Importance of Managerial Skills to Different Managerial Levels

Exhibit 1.4
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First-Year Management Transition


Managers Initial Expectations Be the boss Formal authority Manage tasks Job is not managing people

Adapted from Exhibit 1.6


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First-Year Management Transition

After Six Months as a Manager Initial expectations were wrong Fast pace Heavy workload Job is to be problem-solver and troubleshooter for subordinates

Adapted from Exhibit 1.6


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First-Year Management Transition


After a Year as a Manager No longer doers Communication, listening, & positive reinforcement Job is people development

Adapted from Exhibit 1.6


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The Transition to Management


Initial Assumptions Exercise formal authority Managing tasks not people Help employees do their jobs Hire and fire Reality Cannot be bossy Manage people not tasks Coach employee performance Hire and develop

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Learning Summary
Who are Managers?
Managers coordinate and oversee the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplishes.

Top Managers Middle Managers First-Line Managers Team Leader

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Learning Summary
What do Managers do?
Functions
Planning Organising Leading Controlling
defining goals, establishing strategies, and developing plans arranging and structuring work

working with and through people


evaluating whether things are going as planned

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Learning Summary
What do Managers do?
Roles
Interpersonal Informational
figurehead, leader, liaison

monitor, disseminator, spokesperson


entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator

Decisional

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Learning Summary
What do Managers do?
Skills

Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Leadership Skills (Motivation to Manage)

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Main Reference
Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter, (2007)

Management, 9th Edition Pearson Prentice Hall (ISBN: 0-13-240804-X) Chapter 1

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Q&A

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Review Questions
1. Explain the NEW concept of Management Functions. 2. Describe the different kinds of managers and their responsibilities.

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Review Questions

3. Illustrate the relative importance of Managerial Skills to different Managerial Levels

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Management Issues
Manager Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished.

Did you ever wonder why managers are needed in organisation?

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