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Protection & Restoration of Optical Networks

SMU

CSE 8344

Terminology
Protection
Uses pre-assigned capacity to ensure survivability

Restoration
Reroutes the affected traffic after failure occurrence by using available capacity

Survivability
Property of a network to be resilient to failures

SMU

CSE 8344

Classification of Schemes

SMU

CSE 8344

Reactive / Proactive
Reactive
When an existing lightpath fails, a search is initiated to find a new lightpath which does not use the failed components. (After the failure happens) It cannot guarantee successful recovery, Longer restoration time

Proactive
Backup lightpaths are identified and resources are reserved along the backup lightpaths at the time of establishing the primary lightpath itself.

100% restoration guarantee Faster recovery

SMU

CSE 8344

Link Based vs. Path Based

Link-based

Shorter restoration time Less efficient. Can only fix link failures

Path-based

longer restoration time More efficient.

SMU

CSE 8344

Dedicated vs. Multiplexed Backup

Dedicated backup
More robust Less efficient.

Backup multiplexing
Less robust More efficient.

SMU

CSE 8344

Primary Backup MUX


Wavelength channel to be shared by a primary and one or more backup paths

SMU

CSE 8344

Resilience in Optical Networks


Linear Systems
1+1 protection 1:1 protection 1:N protection

Ring-based

Mesh-based

UPSR: Uni-directional Path Switched Rings BLSR: Bi-directional Line Switched Rings Optical mesh networks connected by optical crossconnects (OXCs) or optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) Link-based/path-based protection/restoration Physical: mesh Logical: ring

Hybrid Mesh Rings

SMU

CSE 8344

Unidirectional WDM Path Protected Rings


1+1 wavelength path selection Signal bridged on both protection and working fiber. Receiver chooses the better signal. Failure:
Destination switches to the operational link. Revertive /Non revertive switching No signaling required.
SMU CSE 8344

Bidirectional Line switched Ring


Shares protection capacity among all the spans on the ring Link failure
Working traffic from 1 fiber looped back onto opposite direction. Signaling protocol required

Node failure
Line switching performed at both sides of the failed node.
SMU CSE 8344

2-Fiber WDM Ring

SMU

CSE 8344

BLSR - 4 Fiber
Fibers
2 working 2 protection

Protection fiber: no traffic unless failure. Link Failure.

APS channel required to coordinate the switching at both ends of a failure.


CSE 8344

SMU

4-Fiber WDM Ring.

SMU

CSE 8344

4-Fiber WDM Ring After a Link Failure

SMU

CSE 8344

4-Fiber WDM Ring After a Node Failure

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CSE 8344

Path Layer Mesh Protection


Protect Mesh as a single unit
Pre-computed routes
1+1 path protection Protection route per light path Protection route per failure.

On the fly route computation.

Decompose into protection domains.


Pure rings P cycles

Centralized route computation and coordination Route computation and coordination at end nodes. Distributed route computation at path ends.

SMU

CSE 8344

Mesh Topologies
Fibers organized in protection cycles.
4 fibers of each link is terminated by 4 2X2 protection switches Before link failure, switches in normal position. After failure, switches moved to protection state and traffic looped back into the protection cycles.
SMU CSE 8344

Computed offline

2X2 Switch

SMU

CSE 8344

Protection Cycles (contd)


Criterion for protection cycles.
Recovery from a single link failure in any optical network with arbitrary topology and bi-directional fiber links
All protection fibers are used exactly once. In any directed cycle both protection fibers in a pair are not used unless they are in a bridge

SMU

CSE 8344

Protection Cycles

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CSE 8344

Protection Cycles (contd)

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CSE 8344

Network With Default Protection Switching

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CSE 8344

Network After a Link Failure

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CSE 8344

P cycles
Ring like restoration needed for some client signals. Mesh topologies: bandwidth efficient. P cycles:Ring like speeds, Mesh like capacity. Addresses the speed limitation of mesh restoration.
SMU CSE 8344

P cycles (contd)
Cycle oriented pre configuration of spare capacity. Can offer up to 2 restoration paths for a failure scenario. Span Failure Time needed for calculating and connecting restoration path is needed in non-real time.
SMU CSE 8344

On cycle: similar to BLSR Off the cycle: 2 paths.

P - cycles

SMU

CSE 8344

WDM Recovery
Fiber based restoration
Entire traffic carried by a fiber is backed by another fiber. Bi-directional connection - 4 fibers. Protection for each wavelength. Bi-directional connection - 2 fibers Allows flexibility in planning the configuration of the network. Recovery procedure similar to BLSR.
CSE 8344

WDM based recovery

SMU

Resilience in Multilayer Networks


Why resilience in multilayer networks?
Avoid contention between different single-layer recovery schemes. Promote cooperation and sharing of spare capacity

SMU

CSE 8344

PANEL: Protection Across Network Layers

SMU

CSE 8344

PANEL Guidelines
Recovery in the highest layer is recommended when:
Multiple reliability grades need to be provided with fine granularity Recovery inter-working cannot be implemented Survivability schemes in the highest layer are more mature than in the lowest layer

Recovery in the lowest layer is recommended when:


The number of entities to recover has to be limited/reduced The lowest layer supports multiple client layers and it is appropriate to provide survivability to all services in a homogeneous way Survivability schemes in the lowest layer are more mature than in the highest layer It is difficult to ensure the physical diversity of working and backup paths in the higher layer

SMU

CSE 8344