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EE-522 Power System Dynamics Term Paper

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF SSSC DAMPING CONTROLLER USING DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION


Mohammad Ali Ashraf G201102010 Date: 12th-May-2012
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Presented by:

Dr. A H Abdur Rahim, Prof. EE Department

Submitted to:

POINTS OF DISCUSSION
Introduction Facts Devices Motivation Problem Statement Solution Approach Controller considered Objectives of the work SMIB Dynamic Power system Modeling Differential Evolution based design Conclusions

BASIC IDEA:
GOAL:

Damp out the low frequency oscillations arising in a dynamic power system during disturbances. THRU: Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) damping controller. Main Task: Design and Simulation of SSSC damping controller Type : 1) Lead-Lag Damping Controller 2) PI Damping Controller
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INTRODUCTION
Electric Power Systems are highly non-linear systems. The synchronous operation of power systems is very important in order to have constant frequency and voltage levels within permissible limits. Any disturbance small or large can affect the synchronous operation.

INTRODUCTION CONTD..

The stability of a system determines whether the system can settle down to a new or original steady state after the transient disappears. Due to growth in electric power demand and increasing network structure Dynamic Stability problems, e.g. low frequency oscillation, become important to electric power systems. Low frequency oscillations(0.1Hz to 2.5 Hz) present limitations on the power-transfer capability. 5

METHODS TO DAMP LFO


Using Power System Stabilizer(PSS) Using Facts Devices such as SVC, STATCOM, SSSC,TCSC,UPFC etc. PSS: A Power system Stabilizer (PSS) is a device which provides additional supplementary control loops to the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system and/or the turbine-governing system of a generating unit. Limitation: Variations in voltage profile Leading power factor operation [1] Narrow stability margin Lesser operational flexibility

CONTD..
To enhance system damping, facts devices are being used in modern power systems. The low frequency oscillations in the system during a disturbance are damped out by Facts controller. Also, they provide power flow control. An appropriate selection of damping controller parameters results in satisfactory performance during system disturbances.

MOTIVATION
The rotor angle stability of a power system is very important in order to have satisfactory operation of a power system. The instability problem is resulting in oscillatory behavior that, if undamped may eventually build up. These undamped oscillations at low frequencies are undesirable because they limit power transfers in transmission lines and induce mechanical stresses. Hence there is a need to improve the stability of a power system during disturbances.

FACTS DEVICES
Series compensation controllable voltage source These devices compensate for the line reactance. Examples include SSSC,TCSC,TCSR etc.

Shunt compensation controllable current source compensates for the line reactance and improves the voltage profile and power factor by absorbing or supplying reactive power. Examples include STATCOM, SVC etc.

STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR(SSSC)

It can be viewed as a controllable voltage source where in the magnitude and phase of the injected voltage can be controlled.

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SSSC ADVANTAGES & OPERATION


Elimination of bulky passive components-capacitors and reactors. Improved technical characteristics. Symmetric capability in both inductive and capacitive operating modes. Possibility of connecting an energy source on the DC side to exchange real power with the AC network. Two modes Voltage control mode Vs can be ve(inductive) or +ve(capactive). Reactance control mode Xs can be negative(inductive) or positive(capacitive) .

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PROBLEM STATEMENT
To design a SSSC damping controller for a given power system in order to mitigate the low frequency oscillations during disturbances.

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DESIGN TECHNIQUES

Linear methods These include pole-placement , pole-shifting , Linear matrix inequalities, Linear optimal control and slidingmode control.
Non-Linear methods These include Adaptive control, Intelligent control, Lyapunov method and frequency response methods.
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SOLUTION APPROACH

The intelligent control techniques will be used in the design of the SSSC damping system stabilizer. The tuning of the parameters will be considered as an optimization problem. The parameters of the damping controller will be obtained by the application of one of the global optimization technique(Differential Evolution).

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LEAD-LAG CONTROLLER
Change in speed Ks(sTw) 1+sTw 1+sT2 1+sT1 1+sT4 1+sT3 Change in u

Figure shows a lead-lag damping controller with input change in speed. The control equation governing it is given by 1 + 2 1 + 4 = ( )( )( ) 1 + 1 + 1 1 + 3)
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PI CONTROLLER
Change in speed Ks(sTw) 1+sTw KP+KI s Change in u

Figure shows a PI damping controller with input change in speed. The control equation is given by = ( )( + ) 1 +

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OBJECTIVES OF THE WORK


Develop a non-linear model of the given power system network(SMIB) along with SSSC. Linearize the model for different operating conditions. Design lead-lag SSSC damping controller and PI controller using the linear model. Tune the parameters of the controller using intelligent control technique(Differential Evolution). Test the effectiveness of the controller in damping out the oscillations by simulating disturbances using the non-linear model.

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NON-LINEAR MODEL WITH SSSC


SMIB(single-machine infinite bus power system model)along with SSSC is considered. Synchronous generator is realized by the 3rd order model. Mechanical power input is assumed to be constant during the dynamics. IEEE ST-1A type exciter is used in the field circuit. Controller is applied to the PWM modulation index m of the Voltage source converter of SSSC. Lead-lag damping controller is considered.

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POWER SYSTEM MODEL(SMIB)

Main Components: 3-phase Voltage source converter Boosting series coupling transformer DC Capacitor
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DYNAMIC EQUATIONS

Synchronous Generator (3rd Order model) = 0

1 = ( 0 + ) 2 1 = [ + ] ST-1A Exciter
1 = + ( + ) SSSC dynamic equation =

+
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CONTD
From the circuit Equation, = ( + + + ) + = ( + + + ) The electrical power is expressed by, = +

And

= +
= 2 + ()2
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LINEARIZED MODEL
=
2

0
1 2 4 5

0
2 2 3 6

0 0
1 1

0
2

0 0 0

And [y]=[K1 0 K2 0 KpDC][X]+[Kpm][m]

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LINEARIZATION CONSTANTS

K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 are the linearization constants. KpDc KqDC KvDC Kvm Kqm Kpm Kdm are the other linearization constants. These are obtained after calculating the initial conditions for the power system model.

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SYSTEM DATA & SSSC DATA


Operating Point Pe=0.8 pu Qe=0.144 p.u and Vb=1.0 pu Generator: H=3 MJ/MVA D=0 Tdo=5.044 s Xd=0.1 pu Xq=0.06 Xd=0.025 f=60 Hz Exciter: KA=5 TA=0.025 s Transmission system: Xline=0.2 pu Xts=0.2 pu SSSC : Cdc=1.0 pu Vdc=0.5 pu m=0.15 Xsct=0.1 pu k=3/4

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HEFFRON MODEL CONSTANTS

Following are the Heffron model constants obtained for the above operating condition K1=1.9014 K2=0.6735 K3=1.1429 K4=0.0498 K5=-0.0127 K6=0.9517 K7=-0.1759 K8=0.032 K9=-0.9521 Kdm=-0.4255 KpDC=0.0244 KqDC= 0.0106 KvDC=-0.035 Kpm=0.0839 Kqm=0.0354 Kvm=-0.008
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OPEN-LOOP ANALYSIS
The above open loop matrix is simulated in Matlab and the eigen values are found for the above operating conditions. The results obtained are as follows Eigen Values: -199.05 -0.02 + 9.98i -0.02 9.98i -0.95 -1.18
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CLOSED LOOP MODEL WITH SSSC

Following three states are added to the open loop model in order to obtain the closed loop model with SSSC damping controller.
1 2 1 6 = 6

12 2 22 7 = 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 7 + 1 6 1 1 1 1
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CONTROLLER EQUATION
124 24 = 13 13 224 24 13 13 4 2 1 4 + 1 6 + 1 7 13 3 1
1 24 ( 3 1

1)
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PI CONTROLLER EQUATIONS
Inputw Outputm

1 2 = + ( )

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DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION OPTIMIZATION


DE is a global optimization technique which is capable of global optimal solutions. Rainer Storn and Kenneth Price introduced Differential Evolution between the year 1994 to 1996. The DE is a population based optimization technique and is characterized by its simplicity, robustness, few control variables and fast convergence. The DE technique is suited for solving non-linear and non-differentiable optimization problems

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DE ALGORITHM
Step-1:

Initialization Step-2: Evaluation and Finding the Best Solution Step-3: Mutation Step-4: Crossover Step-5: Selection Step-6: Stopping criteria
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DE BASED CONTROLLER DESIGN:


In this work, the controller parameters are optimized under different operating conditions. The optimized parameters are Lead-Lag Controller Ks T1 T2 T3 T4 PI controller KP KI The objective or cost function can be expressed as = max(min ) The constraints are as follows 1.0 50 0.01 1 1 0.01 2 1 0.01 3 1 0.01 4 1

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DE PARAMETERS & OTHER CONSTANTS

The parameters of the DE technique are given below. Population Size =100 Generations= 200 Mutation factor F= 0.31 Crossover factor CR= 0.5 Stopping Generation =70

Tw = 3s
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SIMULATION RESULTS

Optimization results of DE: Lead-Lag controller Elapsed time is 0.152045 seconds. Ks optimal =10.4095 T1optimal =0.7489 T2 optimal =0.5242 T3 optimal =0.4887 T4optimal =0.6490 Objective Function J=0.6490 PI controller Elapsed time is 0.275568 seconds. KP optimal=8.4466 KI optimal=0.6535 Objective function J=0.6026
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CLOSED LOOP ANALYSIS(LEAD-LAG)


Closed loop Eigen values -1.3353 +10.3827i -1.3353 -10.3827i -10.8920 -1.1118 + 1.0518i -1.1118 - 1.0518i -0.3336 -0.9497 -1.6241
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CLOSED LOOP ANALYSIS(PI)


Closed loop Eigen values -0.0320 +10.9296i -0.0320 -10.9296i -1.1118 + 1.0520i -1.1118 - 1.0520i -0.9495 -0.0000
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PLOT OF OBJECTIVE FUNCTION


The figure shows plot of J against number of generations

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EFFECTIVENESS OF DE BASED PSS

Impulse change in the mechanical input Pm Response of load angle

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CONTD..

Impulse change in the mechanical input Pm Response of speed deviation

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CONTD..

Sudden three phase fault at the sending end of lines

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CONCLUSIONS
SMIB power system along with SSSC is studied. Lead-Lag and PI controller is designed for the linearized model of the power system. The controller parameters are optimized using Differential Evolution. Effectiveness of the controller is demonstrated for two types of disturbances.

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THANK YOU
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