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Introduction of Networking Advantages of Networking Classification of Networking Component Roles Network Features


Data Communications

The term data refers to raw facts, letters or symbols that are processed into meaningful information. Communication is the process of transferring messages from one point to another. Data communication is the transmission of signals in a reliable and efficient manner.

How do the computers send and receive the data across communication links?

By data communication softwares; instruct computers and devices as to how exactly data is to be transferred from one place to another. The procedure of data transmission in the form of software is called protocol.

Communication Model

The main purpose of a communication system is the exchange of data between two entities. The model is as follows:

Source Transmitter Transmission System Receiver


Data Communication

Components Data Representation Direction of Data Flow

Figure 1.1

Components of data communication

Figure 1.2


Figure 1.3


Figure 1.4


What is Network?

A Network means an interconnected system of objects, people or things.

For examples,

The cities connected by roads make a type of network in which the cities are as nodes and roads are as connected lines called arcs, Water-flow mechanism, Type of graph, Electric circuit, Building structure, Computer Network And so on..


Computer Network


A computer network is a connected set of autonomous computers and able to exchange data. It can be defined as a communications system that links two or more computers and peripherals and enables transfer of data between the computers. It is a hardware mechanism that computers use to communicate. Basically, the computers in a network share information, software, peripherals devices and processing mechanism.


Advantages of Computer Networks

Resource SharingSingle printer or any other hardware can be shared by many machines instead of requiring each machine to have its own printer. Information SharingElectronic mail, WWW, and news groups. Reduced costsMore processing power and storage capacity by buying many PCs and workstations than a single main frame machine. Improved ReliabilityEliminate single points of failure through replication. Effect on Society.

Disadvantages of Computer Networks

Equipment and support can be costly. Level of maintenance continues to grow. Private ownership possible. Some types of hardware may not interoperate.


Types of Network

Classification based on Transmission Technology

Broadcast Networks Point-to-point networks

Classification based on Scale

Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)


Broadcast Networks

Types of transmission technology Broadcast links Point-to-point links


Networks on Scale

Classification of interconnected processors by scale.


Figure 1.12

Categories of networks


Figure 1.13



Figure 1.13

LAN (Continued)


Two computers linked together at home or office are the simplest form of a LAN. In a typical LAN configuration, one computer is designated as the file server. Computer are connected to the file server are called workstations. The server stores all of the software that controls the entire network.


Characteristics of LANs
Smaller scope as a single building or campus, i.e., 10m to 1km. Usually owned by same organization as attached devices. Small size restriction binds the worst-case transmission time and simplifies network management. Distinguished from other networks by size


Figure 1.14



Figure 1.15



WAN Characteristics

Communication Facility Remote Data Entry Centralized Information

Ethernet- developed by Xerox corporation Arpanet- developed at Advanced Research Projects Agency of U.S. Department.
Connect more than 40 universities and institutes throughout USA and Europe.


Home Network Categories

Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3) Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax) Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace, airco) Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam).


Network Software

Protocol Hierarchies Design Issues for the Layers Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Service Primitives The Relationship of Services to Protocols


Network Software
Protocol Hierarchies

Layers, protocols, and interfaces.


Design Issues for the Layers

Addressing Error Control Flow Control Multiplexing Routing


Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services

Six different types of service.


Service Primitives

Five service primitives for implementing a simple connection-oriented service.


Service Primitives (2)

Packets sent in a simple client-server interaction on a connection-oriented network.


Figure 1.5

Point-to-point connection


Figure 1.6

Multipoint connection


Figure 1.7

Categories of topology


Mesh Topology
Mesh topology is an architecture and a way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes as shown in next slide. It allows for continuous connections and reconfigurations around broken or blocked paths by hopping from node to node until the destination is reached. It is in two categories:

Fully connected Partially connected


Mesh Topology

Fully Connected

The type of network topology in which each of the nodes of the network is connected to each of other nodes in the network with a point-topoint link. This makes it possible for data to be simultaneously transmitted from any single node to all of the other nodes. In which some of the nodes of the network are connected to more than one other node in the network with a point-to-point link.

Partially connected

Fully connected

Partially connected

Figure 1.8

Mesh topology (for five devices)


Mesh Topology


The use of dedicated links guarantees that each connection can carry its own data load, thus eliminating traffic problems. A mesh topology is robust because the failure of any computer does not bring the entire network. It provides security and privacy because every message sent travels along a dedicated line. Point-to-point links make fault diagnose easy.


Mesh Topology


Since every computer must be connected to every other computer installation and reconfiguration is difficult. The hardware require to connect each link input/output and cable is expensive. Cabling cost is more.


Star Topology
It consists of one central switch, hub or computer which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. It does not amplify or regenerate the signal. An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems.


Figure 1.9

Star topology


Star Topology


Good performance Scalable, easy to setup and to expand Any non-centralized failure will have very little effect on the network, whereas on a ring network it would all fail with one fault. Easy to detect fault Data packets are sent quickly as they do not have to travel through any unnecessary nodes.


Star Topology


Expensive to install Extra hardware to required If the hub/switch fails the entire system is affected


Bus Topology
In which a set of computers are connected via a shared communication line, called bus. Problem occurs when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus.


Bus Topology


Easy to implement and extend Require less cable length than a star topology Well suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds(quick setup) Cheaper than other topologies.


Bus Topology


Difficult to administer/troubleshoot Limited cable length and number of stations If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network goes down Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic If many computers are attached, the amount of data flowing causes the network to slow down.

Figure 1.10

Bus topology


Ring Topology
In which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a circular pathway for signals: a ring Data travels from node to node, with each node handling every message. Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks may be disrupted by the failure of a single link. A node failure or cable break might isolate every node to attached to the ring.


Figure 1.11 Ring topology


Networks for People

The computer networks offer the following services to an individual person:

Access to remote information Person-to-person communication Interactive entertainment Electronic commerce.


Networking Hardware
File Servers Workstations Network Interface Cards Hubs Repeaters Bridges Routers Switches


File Servers
A file server is a very fast computer with a large amount of RAM and storage space, along with a fast network interface card. The network operating system software resides on this computer, along with any software applications and data files that need to be shared. The file server controls the communication of information between the nodes on a network.


All the computers connected to the file server on a network are called workstations. A workstation is a computer that is configured with a interface card, networking software, and the appropriate cables.


Network Interface Cards (NIC)

NIC provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. NICs are a major factor in determining the speed and performance of a network.


Reference Models

The OSI Reference Model The TCP/IP Reference Model A Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model

Reference Models

The OSI reference model.


Reference Models (2)

The TCP/IP reference model.


Reference Models (3)

Protocols and networks in the TCP/IP model initially.


Functions of Protocols
Encapsulation Segmentation Connection Control Ordered Delivery Flow Control Error Control Addressing Multiplexing Transmission Services



Encapsulation is the process of inserting the information of upper layer into the data field of a lower layer. Let's say you want to send email from your PC to another PC on the Internet. First you type a message that you want to send. This message is converted into 1s and 0s by the application layer. Then, the presentation layer takes this message, and adds it's own header and footer bytes to it. Your message itself has not been changed, it is contained in the data field of the presentation layer. Then the session layer takes the resulting message and adds it's own header and footer to it. The process repeats until it gets to the physical layer. It states that data as well as control information are contained in each PDU (Protocol Data Unit). The specifics of the address are encapsulated into the message.


It implies to segment the data stream into smaller bounded size blocks / PDUs.

Connection Control

There are two types of data transfer that are follows:

Connectionless data transferindependent of other PDUs. Connection-oriented data transfer.





Connection-oriented data transfer

It is used if stations are to be connected for long time or protocol details are to be worked out dynamically. It is also known as virtual circuits with three phases: Establish connection Transfer data Terminate connection

Ordered Delivery

PDUs may not arrive in order in which they are sent. The connection-oriented protocols are require the PDU order to be maintained. So the PDU numbered sequentially as they are generated. There is problem if sequence numbers repeat after over-flow.


Flow control Error control Addressing

Addressing level

At which an entity is named in the communications architecture Global non-ambiguity- one system to one address Global applicability- any system can be identified from anywhere. Individual or unicast address Multicast or broadcast address

Addressing scope (Global address)

Addressing mode

Networking Connecting Devices

Repeaters Bridges Switches Hubs Routers Gateways


Networking Connecting Devices





The device that can be used to interconnect two separate LANs is known as a bridge. It is commonly used to connect two similar or dissimilar LANs. The interconnected individual LANs are called as segments. The bridge filters or forwards the traffic between two electrically independent cable systems attached to it. It operates in layer 2, i.e., data link layer and that is why it is called level-2 relay with reference to the OSI model.

Bridges (contd)

The bridges are designed to store and forward frames and it is protocol independent and transparent to the end stations. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. At each port of bridge it has physical layer and MAC sublayer. The physical layer and MAC sublayer protocols at each port of bridge match with the protocols of the respective LAN. The MAC sublayer have relay and routing function between them.

Bridges (contd)

When a MAC frame is received by the bridge, it examines the destination address, it reformats the frame as required by the other LAN. A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame.


Function of Bridges:

Frame filtering and forwarding Learning the Address Routing- the process of deciding which frames to forward and to where is called bridge routing. Transparent bridges Source routing bridges

Types of bridges:



A router is considered as a layer-3 relay that operates in the network layer, which acts on network layer frames. It can be used to link two dissimilar LANs. A router isolates LANs into subnets to manage and control network traffic. Schema diagram

Description of components of router is called schematic diagram.


Schematic diagram of a router

Routing Processor

Input ports

Output ports

Port n
. .

Port n
Switching Fabric
. .

Port 1 Port 2

Port 1 Port 2



Schema diagram of the router has four basic componentsInput ports Output ports The routing processor The switching fabric

Input port performs physical and data link layer functions of the router. The ports are also provided with buffer to hold the packet before forwarding to the switching fabric. Output port performs the same functions as the input ports, but in the reverse order. The routing processor performs the function of the network layer. The process involves table lookup. The switching fabric moves the packet from the input queue to the output queue by using specialized mechanisms.

Data link layer processor


Physical layer processor

Input Port

Physical layer processor

Data link layer processor


Output Port



A gateway works above the network layer, such as application layer. It is also called layer-7 relay. The application layer gateways can look into the content application layer packets such as email before forwarding it to the other side. This property has made it suitable for use in firewalls.
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical

Communication through a gateway



A repeater can be considered as two transreceivers joined together and connected to two different segments of coaxial cable. The repeater passes the digital signal bit-by-bit in both directions between the two segments. As the signal passes through a repeater, it is amplified and regenerated at the other end. A repeater is considered as a level-1 relay.

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical Physical Physical

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical

Communication through a repeater



Important features

A repeater can connects different segments of a LAN. A repeater forwards every frame it receives. A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier. It can be used to create a single extended LAN.



A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. A switch is a fast bridge having additional sophistication that allows faster processing of frames. Switches may operate at one or more layers of the OSI model, including data link and network. A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is known as a multilayer switch. Some of its important functionalities are:

Ports are provided with buffer Switch maintains a directory: address port Each frame is forwarded after examining the address and forwarded to the proper port.


Three possible forwarding approaches:

Cut-through A switch forwards a frame immediately after receiving the destination address. As a consequence, the switch forwards the frame without collision and error detection. Collision-free In this case, the switch forwards the frame after receiving 64 bytes, which allows detection of collision. Fully buffered In this case, the switch forwards the frame only after receiving the entire frame. So, the switch can detect both collision and error free frames are forwarded.

Functions of Layers of OSI reference model


Physical Layer
The physical layer is responsible for two functions:
Communication with the Data Link layer Transmission and receipt of data.

It is responsible also for sending bits from one computer to another. The physical layer receive digital data from data link layer and process to convert as digital signal. It defines transmission media, transmission devices, physical topologies, data signaling.


Physical layer (contd..)

The transmission media can be a copper cable, a fiber optic cable, or a radio channel. The transmission devices are responsible to send and receive signals over each type of physical medium. It can not detect errors in data transmission. Four important characteristics

Mechanical: physical properties of the interface to transmission medium. Electrical: representation of bits in terms of voltage levels. Functional: functions of individual circuits of physical interface between a system and transmission medium. Procedural: Sequence of events by which bit streams are exchanged.


Physical layer
From data link layer L2 data To data link layer L2 data

Physical layer

Physical layer



Data Link Layer

This layer performs various functions as four primary functions:

Communication with Network layer above. Segmentation of upper layer packets/datagrams into frames in size that can be handled by the communications hardware. Bit Ordering Organizing the pattern of data bits before transmission Communication with the Physical layer below.

The IEEE has divided the data link layer into two sublayers:
MAC sublayer LLC sublayer



Data Link Layer (contd)

Bridges and switches are used at the data link layer. Most popular data link layer LAN protocol in use today is Ethernet. Data link layer protocol specifications include the following three basic elements:

Frame format Mechanism for controlling access to the network medium. One or more physical layer specifications for use with the protocol.


2. Data Link Layer

From Network layer L3 data To Network layer L3 data


1010110100 Frame





Data link layer

Data link layer

To Physical layer

From Physical layer


Network Layer
Network layer provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems. Network layer is the layer at which routing occurs. The network layer is concerned with the following primary functions:

Communication with the transport layer above. Management of connectivity and routing between hosts or networks. Communication with the Data link layer below.


The network layer decides the following:

Logical addressing-software addresses to hardware addresses are resolved. Routing of message (packets) between hosts and networks. Determining the best route (makes routing decisions and forwards packets/datagrams) for devices that could be farther away than a single link. Moves information to the correct address. Sends messages and reports errors regarding packet delivery.


The network layer decides the following:

Reports host group membership to local multicast routers. Communicates through gateway services and routers. The interface between a host and the network.

To the transport layer, it appears as a uniform data transfer service, regardless of the communicating devices and how they are connected.


3. Network Layer
From Transport layer L4 data To Transport layer L4 data



Network layer

Network layer

L3 data
To Data link layer

L3 data
From Data link layer


Transport Layer
This layer is responsible for reliable network communication between nodes. The primary functions of transport layer are:

Communication with the Session layer above. Detect errors and lost data, retransmit data, reassemble datagrams into data streams. Communicate with the Network layer below.

The aim of transport layer is to isolate the upper three layers from the network, so that any changes to the network equipment technology will be confined to the lower three layers.


The transport layer decides the following:

Responsible for packet handling. Ensures error free delivery.

Ensures proper sequencing and without loss and duplication.

Takes action to correct faulty transmissions.

Controls flow of data.

Acknowledges successful receipt of data.


The transport layer protocols are concerned with the following issues:
Establishment and termination of host-to-host connections. Efficient and cost-effective delivery of data across the network from one host to another. Multiplexing of data, if necessary, to improve use of network bandwidth, and de-multiplexing at the other end. Flow control between hosts. Addressing of messages to their corresponding connections. The address information appears as a part of the message header.


4. Transport Layer
From Session layer L5 data To Session layer L5 data







L4 data L4 data L4 data

To Network layer

L4 data L4 data L4 data

From Network layer


Session Layer
The most important services of session layer are:

Responsible for opening and closing session, i.e., it allows applications on connecting system to establish a session. Provides synchronization between communicating computers/nodes, messages are sent between layers Also places checkpoints in the data flow, so that if transmission fails, only the data after the last checkpoint needs to be the transmitted. Handles remote procedure calls.


Session layer protocols are concerned with the following issues:

Negotiating the establishment of a connection (a session) between user processes on communicating hosts, and its subsequent termination. Correct ordering of messages when this function is not performed by the transport layer. Recovery from interrupted transport connections, if necessary. Grouping of messages into a larger message, if necessary, so that the larger message becomes available at the destination only when its constituent messages have all been delivered successfully.



Presentation Layer
The presentation layer performs the following functions:

Communication with the Application layer above. Translation of standard data formats to formats understood by the local machine. Communication with session layer below.

The presentation layer deals with the format or representation, of computer information. It provides security by encrypting and decrypting data. It also compress the data before transmitting it.

Design layer issues:

Abstract representation of application data Binary representation of application data Conversion between the binary representation of application data and a common format for transmission between peer applications Data compression to better utilize network bandwidth Data encryption as a security measure



Application Layer
The application layer provides services to application processes such as electronic mail, file transfer, etc., that are outside of the OSI model. It identifies and establishes the availability of intended communication partners, synchronizes cooperating applications, and establishes agreement on procedures for error recovery and control of data integrity.



Application Layer (contd)

The application layer is the entrance point that programs use to access the OSI model and utilize network resources. Most common application layer protocols provide services that programs use to access the network, such as SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), which most e-mail programs use to send e-mail messages. In some cases, such as the FTP (File Transfer Protocol), the application layer protocol is a program in itself.


TCP/IP Reference Model

TCP/IP reference model is the network model used in the current Internet architecture. The name TCP/IP refers to a suite of data communication protocols. Generally, TCP/IP applications use four layers:
Application layer Transport layer Network layer Host to Network layer

TCP/IP Features
The popularity of the TCP/IP protocols did not grow rapidly just because the protocols were there, or because connecting to the Internet mandated their use. They had several important features as Open protocol standards, freely available and developed independently from any specific computer hardware or operating system. Because it is so widely supported TCP/IP is ideal for uniting different hardware and software, even if you dont communicate over the internet.


TCP/IP Features

Independence from specific physical network hardware. This allows TCP/IP integrate many different kinds of networks. A common addressing scheme that allows any TCP/IP device to uniquely address any other device in the entire network, even if the network is as large as the worldwide Internet. Standardized high-level protocols for consistent, widely available user services.


Functions of layers for TCP/IP model


Application layer
This layer includes all applications protocols that use the host to host transport protocols to deliver the data. Instead of using term session, TCP/IP uses the terms socket and port to describe the path over which cooperating applications communicate. Data encryption and decryption and compression and decompression can also reside at the application layer.

Functions of layers

Application layer
The following TCP/IP protocols are essential: application layer
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) TELNET Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Domain Name System (DNS) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Network File System (NFS) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Application Layer Protocols


File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

It performs basic interactive file transfers between hosts. The FTP allows a user on any computer to get files from another computer, or to send files to another computer. Security is handled by requiring the user to specify a user name and password for the other computer. FTP is a utility that you run any time you want to access a file on another computer.

Application Layer Protocols


It enables users to execute terminal sessions with remote hosts. The network terminal protocol (TELNET) allows a user to log in on any other computer on the network. You start a remote session by specifying a computer to connect to. From that time until you finish the session, anything you type is directly sent to the other computer.

Application Layer Protocols


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

It supports basic message delivery services. This facility allows user to send messages to other users on other computers. The SMTP protocol is used for the transmission of e-mails. It takes care of sending your email to another computer. Normally, the e-mail is sent to an email server (SMTP server), then to another server(s), and finally to its destination.

Application Layer Protocols


Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

It supports the low-overhead transport of files consisting of a mixture of text and graphics. It uses a stateless, connection and object oriented protocol with simple commands that support selection and transport of objects between the client and the server.


Domain Name System (DNS)

It is also called name service. This application maps IP addresses to the names assigned to network devices.

2. Transport Layer

It is designed to allow peer entities on the source and destination hosts to carry on a conversation, just as in the OSI transport layer. Two end-to-end transport protocols have been classified:TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol)


TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

TCP is a reliable connection-oriented protocol that allows a byte stream originating on one machine to be delivered without error on any other machine in the internet. It fragments the incoming byte stream into discrete messages and passes each one on to the internet layer. At the destination, the receiving TCP process reassembles the received messages into the output stream. TCP also handles flow control to make sure a fast sender cannot swamp a slow receiver with more messages than it can handle.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol for applications that do not want TCPs sequencing or flow control and wish to provide their own. It is also widely used as client-server-type request-reply queries and applications in which prompt delivery is more important than accurate delivery, such as transmitting speech or video. The relation of IP, TCP, and UDP is shown in next slide:


Layer (OSI names)













Physical + data link

Figure: Protocols and networks in the TCP/IP model initially


Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Model

S.No 1. OSI Reference Model The protocols in the OSI model are hidden. TCP/IP Reference Model The protocols in the TCP/IP model are not hidden.


Change can be made based on the technology changes.

It supports both connectionless and connection-oriented communication in the network layer, but only connectionoriented communication in transport layer, where it counts (because the transport service is visible to the users). OSI model is based on three concepts i.e. services, interfaces, protocols. Each concept is defined separately. OSI model has specific protocols for bottom two layers that correspond to physical layer and data link layer.

Change can not be made based on the technology changes

It has only one mode in the network layer (connectionless) but supports both modes in the transport layer, giving the users a choice.


TCP/IP model did not originally clearly distinguish between service, interface and protocol. TCP/IP model does not provide specific protocols for bottom two layers that correspond to physical layer and data link layer.


Transmission Media

Transmission Media
Digital data can be transmitted over many different types of media. As we know that selecting a transmission medium is guided by comparing transmission requirements against the medium characteristics as shown in the next slide:


Transmission Media


It is the maximum frequency range that can be practically supported by a medium. The greater bandwidth of the signal, the higher the data rate can be achieved. The cost of installing the medium, including the medium specific equipment that may be needed. The cost of running and maintaining the medium and its equipment.

Cost: two types of cost are relevant as

Transmission Media
Reliability Coverage:

The physical characteristics of a medium dictate how long a signal can travel in it before it is distorted beyond recognition. To cover larger areas, repeaters are needed to restore the signal, and this increases the costs.


Figure 7.2

Classes of transmission media


Twisted-Pair Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber-Optic Cable


Figure 7.3

Twisted-pair cable


Twisted pair cable

In twisted pair technology, two copper wires are strung between two points:
The two wires are typically twisted together in a helix to reduce interference between the two conductors as shown in the previous slide. Twisting decreases the cross-talk interference between adjacent pairs in a cable. Data rates of twisted pair cable has several Mbps. It can be used for several kilometers.

Twisted pair cable

It can carry both analog and digital signals. Data rate determined by wire thickness and length.

Characteristics:-The data rate that can be supported over a twisted-pair is inversely proportional to the square of the line length. For analog voice signals, amplifiers are required about every 6 km and for digital signals, repeaters are needed for about 2 km.


Figure 7.4



Table 7.1 Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables

Category Bandwidth Data Rate Digital/Analog Use


very low
< 2 MHz

< 100 kbps

2 Mbps


T-1 lines

4 5 6 (draft) 7 (draft)

16 MHz
20 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 600 MHz

10 Mbps
20 Mbps 100 Mbps 200 Mbps 600 Mbps

Digital Digital Digital Digital


Coaxial cable

It is made up of a copper core surrounded by insulating material and a braided outer conductor. Physical connection consists of metal pin touching the copper core. Two kinds of coaxial cable are widely used:
One kind, 50-ohm cable for digital transmission from the start. The other kind, 75-ohm cable for analog transmission and cable television.

Figure 7.7

Coaxial cable


Fiber Optics

An optical transmission system has three key components:

The light source
A pulse of light indicates a 1 bit and the absence of light indicates a 0 bit.

The transmission medium

It is an ultra-thin fiber of glass.

The detector
The detector generates an electrical pulse when light falls on it.


Fiber Optics

By attaching a light source to one end of an optical fiber and a detector to the other; a unidirectional data transmission system that accepts an electrical signal, converts and transmits it by light pulses, and then reconverts the output to an electrical signal at the receiving end.


Fiber Optics

A light ray is said to have a different mode, so a fiber having this property is called a multimode fiber. The light can propagate only in a straight line without bouncing, yielding a singlemode fiber.


Figure 7.12

Propagation modes


Figure 7.13



Fiber Cables

Fiber optical cables are similar to coax, except without the braid. At the center is the glass core through which the light propagates. The core is surrounded by a glass cladding to keep all the light in the core. Next comes a thin plastic jacket to protect the cladding. Fibers are typically grouped in bundles, protected by an outer sheath.


Fiber Cables

(a) Side view of a single fiber. (b) End view of a sheath with three fibers.

Fiber Cables

Two kinds of light sources are used to do the signaling, LEDs (Light emitting Diodes) and semiconductor lasers.


TEST SERIES # 1 Note: Attempt all the following questions: What do you mean by OSI? What are the seven layers of ISOs OSI model? What are the key functions of data link layer?

What do you mean by Protocol?

Two networks each provide reliable connection-oriented service. One of them offers a reliable byte stream and the other offers a reliable message stream. Are these identical? If so, why is the distinction made? If not, give an example of how they differ ?

Unguided transmission is used when running a physical cable (either fiber or copper) between two end points is not possible. Infrared signals typically used for short distances; Microwave signals commonly used for longer distances. Difficulties

Weather interferes with signals, may adversely affect communication. Signals bouncing off of structures may lead to out-of-phase signals that the receiver must filter out.

Radio Transmission

Radio signals have been used for long distance communication. It may operate at a variety of frequency bands, ranging from hundreds of Hz to hundreds of GHz. Microwave signals are used for radio transmission. It operates in the GHz range with data rates in order of 100s of Mbps per channel. Example, a satellite system, which is essentially a microwave system has a large repeater in the sky. The signals transmitted by earth stations are received, amplified, and retransmitted to other earth stations by the satellite.

Radio Transmission

Because of their high bandwidths, satellites are capable of supporting an enormous number and variety of channels, including TV, telephone, and data etc. It is recently being used by carriers for providing mobile telephone networks. These operate in the VHF band and subdivide their coverage area into conceptual cells, where each cell represents a limited area which served by a lowerpower transmitter and receiver station. As the mobile user moves from one cell area to another, its communication is handed over from one station to another .

Cellular radio(another popular form of radio)

Table 7.4 Bands

Band VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Range 330 KHz 30300 KHz 300 KHz3 MHz 330 MHz 30300 MHz 300 MHz3 GHz 330 GHz 30300 GHz Propagation Ground Ground Sky Sky Application Long-range radio navigation Radio beacons and navigational locators AM radio Citizens band (CB), ship/aircraft communication

Sky and line-of-sight


VHF TV, FM radio

UHF TV, cellular phones, paging, satellite

Line-of-sight Satellite communication Line-of-sight Long-range radio navigation


It is a technology which allows the various users to share the channel simultaneously. It reduces the cost of transmission media and modem. In functioning, the MUX is connected to the DEMUX by a single data link. The MUX combines data from these n input lines and transmits them through the single high capacity data link, which is being demultiplexed at the other end and is delivered to the suitable output lines. Thus, multiplexing can also be defined as a technique that allows simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.


Multiplexing techniques can be categorized into the following types:

Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

It is used extensively in radio and TV transmission. The frequency spectrum is divided into several logic channels, giving each user exclusive possession of a particular frequency band. It is also called synchronous TDM, which is commonly used for multiplexing digitized voice stream.

Time-division multiplexing (TDM)

Statistical TDM

This is also called asynchronous TDM. This scheme simply improves on the efficiency of synchronous TDM.


Frequency Division Multiplexing

Assignment of non-overlapping frequency ranges to each user or signal on a medium. Thus, all signals are transmitted at the same time, each using different frequencies. A multiplexor accepts inputs and frequencies to each device. assigns

The multiplexor is attached to a high-speed communications line.

A corresponding multiplexor, or demultiplexor, is on the end of the high-speed line and separates the multiplexed signals.


Frequency Division Multiplexing

Analog signaling is used to transmits the signals.

Broadcast radio and television, cable television, and cellular phone systems use frequency division multiplexing.
This technique technique. is the oldest multiplexing

Since it involves analog signaling, it is more susceptible to noise.


Time Division Multiplexing

Sharing of the signal is accomplished by dividing available transmission time on a medium among users. Digital signaling is used exclusively. Time division multiplexing comes in two basic forms: 1. Synchronous time division multiplexing, and 2. Statistical, or asynchronous time division multiplexing.


Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

The original time division multiplexing. The multiplexor accepts input from attached devices in a round-robin fashion and transmit the data in a never ending pattern. T-1 and ISDN telephone lines are common examples of synchronous time division multiplexing.



Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

If one device generates data at a faster rate than other devices, then the multiplexor must either sample the incoming data stream from that device more often than it samples the other devices, or buffer the faster incoming stream. If a device has nothing to transmit, the multiplexor must still insert a piece of data from that device into the multiplexed stream.




Synchronous time division multiplexing

So that the receiver may stay synchronized with the incoming data stream, the transmitting multiplexor can insert alternating 1s and 0s into the data stream.


Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing Three types popular today:

T-1 multiplexing (the classic)

ISDN multiplexing SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork)


The T1 (1.54 Mbps) multiplexor stream is a continuous series of frames of both digitized data and voice channels.

24 separate 64Kbps channels


Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 5 The ISDN multiplexor stream is also a continuous stream of frames. Each frame contains various control and sync info.


Data Communications and Computer Networks SONET massive data rates Chapter 5


Synchronous TDM
Very popular Line will require as much bandwidth as all the bandwidths of the sources


Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

A statistical multiplexor transmits only the data from active workstations (or why work when you dont have to). If a workstation is not active, no space is wasted on the multiplexed stream. A statistical multiplexor accepts the incoming data streams and creates a frame containing only the data to be transmitted.


Statistical Time Division Multiplexing


Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

To identify each piece of data, an address is included.


Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Give each message a different wavelength (frequency) Easy to do with fiber optics and optical sources

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Dense wavelength division multiplexing is often called just wavelength division multiplexing Dense wavelength division multiplexing multiplexes multiple data streams onto a single fiber optic line. Different wavelength lasers (called lambdas) transmit the multiple signals. Each signal carried on the fiber can be transmitted at a different rate from the other signals. Dense wavelength division multiplexing combines many (30, 40, 50, 60, more?) onto one fiber.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)


Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)



As we know that the telephone consists of three major components: system

Local loops
analog twisted pairs going into houses and businesses

digital fiber optics connecting the switching offices

Switching offices
where calls are moved from one trunk to another

Local loops
Modems When a computer wishes to send digital data over an analog dial-up line, the data must first be converted to analog form for transmission over the local loop. This conversion is done by a device called a modem. The modem is inserted between the (digital) computer and the (analog) telephone system.


Local loops
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) ADSL modem is actually a digital signal processor that has been set up to act as 250 QAM modems operating in parallel at different frequencies. Wireless Local Loops (WLL) In a certain sense, a fixed telephone using a wireless local loop is a bit like a mobile phone.


The phone system is divided into two main parts:
Outside plant (the local loops and trunks, since they are physically outside the switching offices)
Inside plant (the switches)

Two different switching techniques are used now-a-days:

Circuit switching Packet switching


Circuit switching
When you or your computer places a telephone call, the switching equipment within telephone system seeks out a physical path all the way from your telephone to the receivers telephone. This technique is called circuit switching.


Circuit Switching

(a) Circuit switching.

(b) Packet switching.

Message Switching

(a) Circuit switching

(b) Message switching

(c) Packet switching

Packet Switching

A comparison of circuit switched and packet-switched networks.

Data Link Layer Design Issues

Services Provided to the Network Layer Framing Error Control Flow Control


Functions of the Data Link Layer

Provide service interface to the network layer Dealing with transmission errors Regulating data flow

Slow receivers not swamped by fast senders


Functions of the Data Link Layer (2)

Relationship between packets and frames.


Services Provided to Network Layer

(a) Virtual communication.

(b) Actual communication.


A character stream: (a) Without errors. (b) With one error.


Framing (2)

(a) A frame delimited by flag bytes. (b) Four examples of byte sequences before and after stuffing.

Framing (3)

Bit stuffing:-(a) The original data. (b) The data as they appear on the line. (c) The data as they are stored in receivers memory after destuffing.


Error Detection and Correction

Error-Correcting Codes Error-Detecting Codes


Error-Correcting Codes
Use of a Hamming code to correct burst errors.


Error-Detecting Codes

Calculation of the polynomial code checksum.


Elementary Data Link Protocols

An Unrestricted Simplex Protocol A Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol A Simplex Protocol for a Noisy Channel


Sliding Window Protocols

A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol A Protocol Using Go Back N A Protocol Using Selective Repeat


Sliding Window Protocols (2)

A sliding window of size 1, with a 3-bit sequence number. (a) Initially. (b) After the first frame has been sent. (c) After the first frame has been received. (d) After the first acknowledgement has been received.

A One-Bit Sliding Window Protocol (2)

Two scenarios for protocol 4. (a) Normal case. (b) Abnormal case. The notation is (seq, ack, packet number). An asterisk indicates where a network layer accepts a packet.

A Protocol Using Go Back N

Pipelining and error recovery. Effect on an error when (a) Receivers window size is 1. (b) Receivers window size is large.


Sliding Window Protocol Using Go Back N (2)

Simulation of multiple timers in software.


Example Data Link Protocols

HDLC High-Level Data Link Control The Data Link Layer in the Internet


High-Level Data Link Control

Frame format for bit-oriented protocols.


High-Level Data Link Control (2)

Control field of (a) An information frame. (b) A supervisory frame. (c) An unnumbered frame.


The Data Link Layer in the Internet

A home personal computer acting as an internet host.


PPP Point to Point Protocol

The PPP full frame format for unnumbered mode operation.


PPP Point to Point Protocol (2)

A simplified phase diagram for bring a line up and down.


PPP Point to Point Protocol (3)

The LCP frame types.


Domain Name System

It is a naming scheme that uses a hierarchical, domain-based naming scheme on a distributed database system. The domain names are case insensitive, so com and COM have same meaning. Every node has a label which is 63 characters long. The top-level domains are divided into two categories: generic and countries. For example,


Domain Name System

Each domain name is named by the path upward from it to the root. The components are separated by dots. Whenever a new system is installed in a zone, the DNS administrator for the zone allocates name and IP address for the new servers database. A zone is a subtree of the DNS tree that is administrated separately.


Domain Name System

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Domain Name com edu gov mil net org int Description Commercial applications Educational institutions USA Governmental organizations USA military Network Other organizations International organization



Academic institutions
Symbols for countries like india, united kingdom, france, italy etc.


DNS Components

DNS includes the following components:

Domain Domain name

It is defined by the DNS as being the sequence of names and domain. For exp, sharda.ac.in could be the name of domain. Software (programs) maps names to addresses. It does this mapping domain name to IP address. It is a software that functions as a client interacting with a name server.

Name server

Name resolver

Name Cache

It is the storage used by the name resolver to store information frequently used.
part of domain.

Zone :


Each user, who intends to participate in e-mail communication, is assigned a mailbox, where outgoing and incoming messages are buffered, allowing the transfer to take place in the background.

The message contains the header that specifies the sender, recipients, and subject, followed by a body that contains message. The TCP/IP protocol that supports e-mail on the internet is called Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).


The SMTP supports the following features:

Sending a message to one or many recipients. Sending messages that include text, voice, video, or graphics.

A software package, known as User Agent, is used to compose, read, reply or forward e-mails and handle mailboxes. The e-mail address consists of two parts divided by a @ character. The first part is the local name that identifies mailbox and the second part is a domain name.


E-mail operation

The following steps are:

User agent SMTP sender SMTP receiver


Mail Access Protocol

As, we know that the e-mail delivery takes place in three stages. The first and second stage use SMTP but the third stage does not use SMTP because it is push protocol, so the third stage uses a mail access protocol. There are two mail access protocols being used:

POP3 (Post office protocol version 3) IMAP4 (Internet Mail Access protocol version 4)