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Gilbert Newton Lewis (surrounded by pairs of electrons)

Lewis diagrams
Lewis suggested a means of keeping track of outer (or valence) electrons

Why and how do atoms combine ?


Lewis diagrams When atoms combine, only electrons in the outer (valence) shell are involved. We can represent these valence electrons with Lewis diagrams. Lewis diagrams for the first 20 elements are as follows:
IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 0

He
Li Be B C N

O
S

F Cl

Ne

Na

Mg

Si

Ar

To write Lewis diagrams:


1. Write the element symbol. Around this draw dots one for each valence electron. 2. The dots should be spread over four sides. Dots are not paired until all sides have at least one dot. 3. It does not matter on which side the dots are placed. For example, hydrogen can be drawn four ways: H= H= H = H

4. The number of valence electrons is equal to the

group number. For example, hydrogen is in group IA (group 1) and it has one valence electron. Neon is in 0 (group 8) and it has 8 valence electrons. The only exception is He which is in group 8 but has 2 valence electrons. Q1 Write Lewis diagrams for a) Ne, b) Sb (Z=51), c) Rb, d) a neutral atom with 9 total electrons Q2 Write all possible variations of the Lewis diagram for phosphorus.

Lewis diagrams (Q1, Q2)

Q1
Ne Sb Rb F

Q2
P P P P

The Octet Rule


The noble gasses do not react with other elements. In other words, noble gasses are very stable. Lets look at the electron configuration of noble gasses (note: K is the name given to shell 1, L to 2, etc.) Element Shell K L M N O P He 2 Ne 2 8 Ar 2 8 8 Kr 2 8 18 8 Xe 2 8 18 18 8 Rn 2 8 18 32 18 8

Most Noble gasses have 8 electrons in their outer shell as shown in the above stable conformation
The Octet Rule When atoms form ions or combine in compounds they obtain electron configurations of the nearest noble gas (usually this means that there will be 8 outer electrons).

The Octet rule and ion formation As stated, when atoms form ions they seek an electron configuration like that of the nearest noble gas. Nearest refers to the number of representative elements between an element and a noble gas. For example Br is 1 space removed from Kr, but 7 spaces removed from Ar (see your periodic table). So, Br would gain 1 electron to form Br. Similarly, Mg would lose 2 electrons to become Mg2+.

Q3Complete the chart:


Br
Nearest Noble gas (spaces removed) Kr (1)

Ne

Al

Ca

Resulting ion Br

Group IVA elements are equal distances from two noble gasses. These elements tend not to form ions

Ions and the octet rule (Q3)


Read the remainder of the handout. Do Q3.

Ions and the octet rule (Q3)


Answers

Br P Ne Al Ca Noble gas Kr Ar Ne Ne Ar (3) (0) (3) (2) (spaces) (1) Br P 3 none Al 3+ Ca 2+ Ion

Overview: Types of Bonds (Q4)


There are 2 major types of bonds : ionic and covalent In ionic bonding one atom has a stronger attraction for electrons than the other, and steals an electron from a second atom

In covalent bonding the attraction for electrons is similar for two atoms. They share their electrons to obtain an octet.

Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding involves 3 steps 1) loss of an electron(s) by one element 2) gain of electron(s) by a second element 3) attraction between positive and negative 1)
Na

2)
Cl

3)
Na+ Na+ Cl

Ionic bonding (Q5 - Li + Cl)


Ionic bonding (stealing/transfer of electrons) can be represented in three different ways 1. Li + Cl [Li]+[Cl]
1e3p+ 2e-1e4n0 7e- 8e- 2e17p+ 18n0 3p+ 2e- 8e-8e-2e 4n0 17p+ 18n0

2.

3.

Li

Cl

[Li]+ [ Cl ]

Ionic bonding: Mg + O
1.

Mg + O [Mg]2+[O]2
1e8p+ 8n0 12p+ 2e- 8e- 8e- 2e- 8p+ 8n0 12n0

12p+ 2e- 8e- 2e12n0

6e- 2e-

1e-

3.

Mg

[Mg]2+ [

]2
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Ionic bonding: Li + O
1. 2Li 2.

+ O [Li]2+[O]2 or 4Li + O2 2[Li]2+[ O]2


3p+ 2e-1e4n0

1e6e- 2e8p+

3p+ 2e4n0
8e- 2e-

8n0 3p+ 2e4n0

8p+ 8n0

3p+ 2e-1e4n0

1e-

3.

Li Li

[Li]2+ [

]2

Ionic bonding: Al + Cl
1e7e- 8e- 2e17p+ 18n0 8e- 8e- 2e17p+ 18n0

1e-

13p+ 2e- 8e-3e+ - 8e- 2e- 17p 7e 14n0 18n0

13p+ 2e- 8e- 8e- 8e- 2e- 17p 14n0 18n

1e7e- 8e- 2e17p+ 18n0 8e- 8e- 2e17p+ 18n0

Ionic bonding: Al + Cl
Al + 3Cl [Al]3+[Cl]3
Cl Al Cl Cl [Al]3+ [ Cl ]3

Covalent bonding
Thus far we have looked at when atoms bond due to the transfer of electrons An ionic bond forms when an atom has a greater attraction for es than a second atom However, if two atoms have approximately the same pull on electrons, they share the electrons (forming a covalent bond) Read Covalent bonding and Covalent bonding continued. Do Q7.

Covalent bonding
Q7 CCl4 - Covalent HCl - Covalent MgF2 - Ionic H Cl NH3 - Covalent H N H H2O - Covalent H O H H OH - Covalent O H
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Cl
Cl C Cl Cl

[Mg]2+[

]2

NaCl - Ionic [Na] + [ Cl ]

H2 - Covalent
H H

Multiple bonds

Do Q. 8. Build models of molecules, O3 as challenge (cant build it or ionic) HCl - Covalent CO2 - Covalent Na O - Ionic
2

O C O H Cl H Cl [Na]2+ [ O ]2 O C O NH3 - Covalent O2 - Covalent I2 - Covalent I I O O H N H H N H O O H H I I H H Al2O3 - Ionic O3 - Covalent [Al]2 [ O ]3


3+ 2

O O

H C H H C H

O O O

Assignment: Question 4 Answers


Read types of bonds on handout. Do Q4. MgO (ionic), CaCl2 (ionic), SO2 (covalent), PbCl2 (ionic),
CCl4 (covalent), CH4 (covalent)