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Web 2.0 L07: web 2.

0 Terms

Web 2.0
Web 2.0
Concepts represented by it Web as a service, not a software Group mentality of web Harness collective intelligence Users encouraged to participate Tagging, blogging, networking etc Separation of data from presentation Mashups: combination of data from multiple sources Richer, responsive user experience User centered design Information sharing facilitation User collaboration

Web 2.0
Web 2.0
Originally name of conference by OReilly and MediaLive Intl Term coined by Dale Dougherty Noted the web has become more important More exciting applications regularly Term just caught on Tim Berners Lee calls it piece of jargon http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html http://www.web2summit.com/web2009/public/schedule/de tail/10194 The term coined by Danci DiNucci in 1999 Her article Fragmented Future

Web 2.0 definition


http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2005/10/web-20compact-definition.html
Go thru blog comments to understand web 1.0 and 2.0 Not for your exams

Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences

Web 2.0
Web 1.0 DoubleClick Ofoto Akamai mp3.com Britannica Online personal websites Flickr BitTorrent Napster Wikipedia blogging Web 2.0 Google AdSense

evite
domain name speculation page views screen scraping publishing directories (taxonomy) stickiness

upcoming.org and EVDB


search engine optimization cost per click web services participation tagging ("folksonomy") syndication
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content management systems wikis

Visualize web 2.0 as set of principles and practices

Web as a platform

Web 2.0 Features


Web as a platform Harnessing collective intelligence Data is the king Perpetual beta software (End of release cycle) Lightweight programming Software above a single device

1. Web as a Platform
DoubleClick
Seamless cooperations of two websites Provided banner advt. Reader could not make out that it is from 2 web sites

Akamai
Network as a platform Transparent content and caching delivery Easing bandwidth congestion

Netscape (1.0) vs Google (2.0)


Netscape used web as platform and promted webtop Wanted to replace MS from desktop Google delivered web as a service Never sold/packaged the service No software released, continuous improvement No porting to different platforms
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Web as a Platform
Google made change Control over API (the product software) became irrelevant No software distributed More like a phone network in the middle Between the user and content server/provider Contemporary of Netscape Lotus, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP et al Contemporary of Google Ebay, Amazon, Napster, et al DoubleClick vs AdSense (Google) DoubleClick : failed business model Web is about publishing, not participation Advertisers call the shots Internet dominated by top websites AdSense: Collective power of all (small) sites Eschewed publisher/ad-agency format format Lesson: Leverage customer self service - the long tail

Web as a Platform
Akamai vs BitTorrent
Akamai: Business with the head, not tail Collected revenue from central sites BitTorrent Every client is a server too Files are broken into fragments Served from multiple locations Popular the file, faster the download Implicit architecture of participation Built-in ethic of cooperation Web 2.0 principle: Service automatically gets better the more people use it

Lesson:
A platform beats an application any time
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2. Harnessing Collective Intelligence


Yahoo!
Portal to the collective work of nets users

Google
Pagerank: the link structure of web Users decides the value

Ebay
Collective activity of its users Company is just an enabler

Amazon
Sells the same things as BarnesAndNobles.com Made a science of user engagement Use users activity to make a better search

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2. Harnessing Collective Intelligence...


Next level of companies in this chain Wikipedia
A radical experiment in trust

Flickr
Pioneered the folksonomy concept Tagging by freely choosing words

Open source software


Apache, Linux, MySql, Perl, PHP. Python Instance of collective, net-enabled intelligence Relies on peer production software

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2. Harnessing Collective Intelligence...


Blogging
Highly talked about feature of web 2.0 Personal diary, home pages existed before The (trivial) difference Chronological organization RSS (1997) Technology contributed to difference Allows a page to be subscribed (not linked) Being used for all kind of data services Stock quotes, weather data et al

Lesson:
Network effects from user contributions are the key to market dominance in web 2.0 era.

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3. Data : The Next Intel Inside


Who owns the data? Network Solutions
Domain name registrar

NavTeq, TeleAtlas, Digital Globe


Built their databases of street addresses, direction MapQuest started earlier But lost out to yahoo maps, google maps They licensed the same data

Books data
ISBN: original source Fully augmented by Amazon (ToC, title pictures etc)

Winner
The first one to reach critical mass via user aggregation
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4. End of Software Release Cycle


Software as a service
Not as a product Fundamental changes in business model Operations must become core competencies Software will cease to perform
unless it is maintained on regular (daily) basis

Googles closely guarded secrets


system administration, networking, load balancing

Users must be treated as co-developers Software in perpetual beta mode Users decides which features are useful Flickr deploys builds on hourly basis

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5. Lightweight Programming Models


Amazons web service
95% users use REST and not complex SOAP based web service

Mapping web services


Complex web services available earlier from GIS vendors MapQuest, MS MapPoint, ESRI et al Required formal contract Simple ones from Google maps Became popular, defacto user base No formal contract, Creative reuse (hacking) of data

Lessons
Support lightweight programming Provide for hackability Webs view source RSS: view the wanted content, whenever

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Microsoft Web app

6. Software Above a Single Device

PC and Windows, Single device


Need min of two device Browser and server, agnostic to PC Generally multiple servers are used Think of services provided by multiple systems

iTunes/Tivo
Not the web apps, but uses power of web platform Services and not packaged applications Podcasting takes iTunes to higher level of collective intelligence

Future apps
Web did to PC what PC did to mainframes Thinks of apps that report/generate data and not consume it Cars to report traffic monitoring Citizen journalism 17 Education ?

7. Rich User Experience


Provides PC equivalent user interactivity in web app
Gmail vs desktop clients Flash vs graphics

Collaborating writing
Google docs

Web 2.0 addressbook Integrated communication client


Email, IM, phone(VoIP), video etc.

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Web 2.0
Arrival of web 2.0
Blogging Wikis wikipedia Social networking Myspace, facebook

Core aspects: 3 dimensions of web


Mashups Utilize and combine data from various sources Representation that allows added values Rich Internet Applications New application as a composition of older ones Enrich user experience on the web Service oriented approach Socialization Tagging, blogging, wiki-ing

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Web 2.0 Techniques


SLATES by Andrew McAfee
Search Ease of finding information Links Guides to other relevant information Authoring Ability to create constantly updating contents Iterative update: Wikis Cumulative update: blogging Tags Categorization of content One word user determined description Extensions Leverage the web as application platform Signals RSS technology to notify users of content changes

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Web 2.0: how it works


Client side technologies
AJAX Frameworks: Yahoo! UI library, Goggle toolkit, JQuery, Dojo Toolkit

Structured data formats


XML, JSON

Adobe Flash
Capability to play audio/video files Doing many things not possible in existing web language Graphics

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Web APIs
REST (REpresentational State Transfer)
Use HTTP Alone With XML or JSON payloads

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)


Posting elaborate XML requests Receive extensive XML response Uses WSDL to publish SOAP APIs

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Folksonomies
Folksonomy
Process where people collaborate to organize information Using impromptu vocabulary

Analogy example
Corporate team building Large users arrange flash cards as they classify Users classify information e.g. White board Provides high probability of appropriate classification Students classifying subjects Hard or easy Out of course, in the course

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Folksonomy & web 2.0


Folksonomy for web 2.0
Large information updated continuously Difficulty for any organization to classify it accurately Let users of information classify it Example Amazon.com User can tag products Overtime it users add values for other users Evolves into its own folksonomy Course selection Seniors provide information about past course
Tags as tough/easy Tags as high scoring, low scoring Job potential opportunities

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Web 2.0
Web 2.0 impacts
Data is the king Convergence Iterative development Rich browser experience HTML5 is on its way Multiple delivery channels Social networking Rise of individual developer

Web 2.0 examples


Social networking sites Video sharing sites Wikis Blogs Mashups Folksonomies

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Software as a Service
Web 2.0 provides rich functionality /data
Data is accessible to both humans, machines Leads to more automation

Reusable channels such as web service


User can use it as they deem fit Puts more trust in user than before Example results.vtu.ac.in Provides only page If provides web service, then program can be written
To access and analyze it

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