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Fiber optic communications systems Optics review Lightwave fundamentals Integrated optic waveguides Optic fiber waveguides Light sources Light detectors Couplers and connectors Fiber components Modulation Noise and detection System design

Historical perspective
Hand Signal
Sun Source Detector Hand Motion Modify or modulator Slow Limited distance Human Eye

Human Brain Signal processor

More Error

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Non-Fiber optic communications systems (1960) Clear Atmosphere Line of sight Eye damage

General Block Diagram

General Block Diagram

Major elements


Message Origin
Non electrical Signals

Audio Video
Electrical Signals Computer to computer Sensor output

Coverts electrical signal to proper format Impresses it on to carrier Analog Digital Modulation with different carrier frequency permits transmission of several message through same channel

Carrier Source
Generates wave on which the message is transmitted

LD ( Laser diode) LED (Light Emitting diode) Light weight, small and consume moderate power Easy modulation Less error with digital signal Frequency matches with that of fiber

Channel Coupler

Information Channel
Glass or plastic fiber Low attenuation Large Light-acceptance-cone-angle Less propagation time

Photodiodes or phototransistors

Small size Economy Long life Low power consumption High sensitivity Fast variation

Signal Processor


Message output
Message presented to a person
Message fed to a device which uses electrical signal

Bandwidth of common analog systems

Voice Music Music Television

4kHz 10kHz 200kHz 6MHz

Single telephone channel AM radio broadcasting station FM radio broadcasting station Television broadcasting station

Digital transmission rate

Number of Voice channels
1 24 48 (2 T1 System) 96 (4 T1 System) 672 (7 T2 System) 1344 (2 T3 System) 4032 (6 T3 System) 6048 (9 T3 System) 8064 (12 T3 System) T1 T1C T2 T3 T3C T4 __ __ DS-1 DS-1C DS-2 DS-3 DS-3C DS-4 __ __

Transmission Designation

Signaling Designation

Data Rate
64 kbps 1.5444 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 91.053 Mbps 274.175 Mbps 405 Mbps 565 Mbps

Synchronous Optical NETwork
Transmission Designation (Electrical) (Optical)
STS-1 OC-1

Data Rate (Mbps)


STS-3c STS-12 STS-24 STS-48

OC-3 OC-12 OC-24 OC-48

155.52 622.08 1244.16 2488.32

Power in Decibels
dB 10 log 10


P2 P1
P3 P4

dB 10 log 10

P4 P4 P3 P2 10 log 10 P1 P3 P2 P1

10 log 10

P3 P4 P2 10 log 10 10 log 10 P3 P2 P1

Wave Particle

Fiber optic Window


Advantages of Fiber optic communication Enormous bandwidth Small size and weight Electrical isolation Immunity to interference and cross talk Signal security Low transmission loss Ruggedness and flexibility System reliability Easy maintenance Potential low cost

Voice: Telephone, Broad band etc. Video : TV, CATV, Remote monitoring

Data : Computer, cpu to peripherals, LAN, Aircraft, Ship, Satellite earth station wiring etc. Sensors : Gyroscope, position, temperature etc.