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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO WEB DEVELOPMENT

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INTRODUCTION TO WEB DEVELOPMENT


In 1990 and 1991,Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland The original purpose of the World Wide Web (WWW) was to provide easy access to crossreferenced documents that existed on the CERN computer network Hypertext linking allows you to quickly open other Web pages

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INTRODUCTION TO WEB DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)


A document on the Web is called a Web page A Web page is identified by a unique address called the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A URL is also commonly referred to as a Web address A URL is a type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) A Web site refers to the location on the Internet of the Web pages and related files

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INTRODUCTION TO WEB DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED)


Web pages are displayed using a program called a Web browser A Web server is a computer that delivers Web pages The most popular Web server software is Apache HTTP Server (Apache) The second most popular Web server is Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) for Windows

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HTML DOCUMENTS
Web pages are created using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Web pages are commonly referred to as HTML pages or documents A markup language is a set of characters or symbols that define a documents logical structure HTML is based on an older language called Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

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HTML DOCUMENTS (CONTINUED)


Like SGML, HTML was originally designed as a way of defining the elements in a document independent of how they would appear HTML has evolved into a language that defines how elements should appear in a Web browser Understanding HTML is critical in learning how to write a web application along with the server programming

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BASIC HTML SYNTAX


HTML documents are text documents that contain formatting instructions called tags HTML tags include:

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Formatting commands (boldface or italic) Controls that allow user input (option buttons or check boxes)

Tags are enclosed in brackets (< >) and consist of an opening tag and a closing tag Tutorial for learning HTML

http://www.htmldog.com/ http://www.w3schools.com/html/DEFAULT.asp

WEB COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS


A Web page is identified by a unique address called the URL Each URL consists of two basic parts:

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A protocol (usually HTTP) and Either the domain name for a Web server or a Web servers Internet Protocol address

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) manages the hypertext links that are used to navigate the Web

WEB COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS (CONTINUED)


A host refers to a computer system that is being accessed by a remote computer A domain name is a unique address used for identifying a computer such as a Web server on the Internet The domain identifier identifies the type of institution or organization (.biz, .com, .edu, .org) An Internet Protocol, or IP address, is another way to identify computers or devices connected to the Internet

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WEB COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS (CONTINUED)


An IP address consists of a series of four groups of numbers separated by periods Each Internet domain name is associated with a unique IP address HTTP is a component of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) provides secure Internet connections for transactions that require security and privacy

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WEB COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS (CONTINUED)


http://www.google.com/help/index.html
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Protocol

Domain name

Directory

Filename

Figure 1-4 Sample URL

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE

Web Hosting:

The publication of a Web site for public access Internet access (cable modem, DSL, satellite, dial-up modem, ISP) Provides access to the Internet along with other types of services such as e-mail

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Internet Service Provider (ISP):

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE (CONTINUED)

ISP advantages to hosting a Web site:

Extremely fast Internet connections using advanced fiber-optic connections Large and powerful Web servers and the expertise and manpower to maintain and manage them

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A domain name is a unique address used for identifying a computer, such as a Web server on the Internet

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE (CONTINUED)

Domain name registration


Pick a domain name that is similar to your business name or that describes your Web site You cannot use a domain name that is already in use or a trademarked name Contact a domain name registrar to find out the availability of a domain name and register it Domain names are stored in a master database that is maintained by the InterNIC

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE (CONTINUED)

Domain name registration (continued)

For a fee, domain names can be registered for a specified period of time Most hosting sites provide registration service for you After you register your domain name, notify your ISP of your domain information

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE (CONTINUED)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


Is a TCP/IP protocol used for transferring files across the Internet Transfers files between an FTP client (your computer) and an FTP server (a server capable of running FTP) The vehicle that allows you to get your Web page files to the Web server

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PUBLISHING YOUR WEB SITE (CONTINUED)

File Transfer Protocol (continued)

Your ISP provides a username and password to log on to the FTP site and upload files to the FTP server Examples of FTP clients include Firefox and Internet Explorer and WinScp

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Use your browser to log on to an FTP server and upload your files

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WORKING WITH WELL-FORMED WEB PAGES


HTML became an Internet standard in 1993 with the release of version 1.0 The current version of HTML (4.01) was released in 1999 HTML 4.01 is the last version of the HTML language and is being replaced with extensible hypertext markup language (XHTML) HTML is not suitable for user agents other than Web browsers

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS)

A well-formed document must include:

<!DOCTYPE> declaration <html>, <head>, and <body> elements

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A document type definition (DTD) defines:


The elements and attributes that can be used in a document The rules that a document must follow when it includes them

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS) (CONTINUED)

There are three types of DTDs with XHTML documents:


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transitional strict frameset

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was established in 1994 at MIT to oversee the development of Web technology standards

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS) (CONTINUED)

The W3C:

Decided some common HTML elements and attributes for display and formatting would not be used in XHTML 1.0 Recommended using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) instead of HTML elements and attributes for displaying and formatting Web pages

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Elements and attributes that are considered obsolete and will eventually be eliminated are said to be deprecated

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS) (CONTINUED)


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Table 1-2 HTML elements that are deprecated in XHTML 1.0

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS) (CONTINUED)

Transitional DTD:

Allows you to use deprecated style elements in your XHTML documents Use only if you need to create Web pages that use the deprecated elements

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Frameset DTD:
Identical to the transitional DTD, except that it includes the <frameset> and <frame> elements Allows you to split the browser window into two or more frames

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XHTML DOCUMENT TYPE DEFINITIONS (DTDS) (CONTINUED)

Strict DTD:

Eliminates the elements that were deprecated in the transitional DTD and frameset DTD The <!DOCTYPE> declaration for the strict DTD is as follows:
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC

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"-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1strict.dtd">

Always try to use the strict DTD

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WRITING WELL-FORMED DOCUMENTS


Include a <!DOCTYPE> declaration and the <html>, <head>, and <body> elements All XHTML documents must use <html> as the root element XHTML is case sensitive All XHTML elements must have a closing tag Attribute values must appear within quotation marks

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WRITING WELL-FORMED DOCUMENTS (CONTINUED)


Empty elements must be closed XHTML elements must be properly nested Nesting refers to how elements are placed inside other elements

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CASCADING STYLE SHEETS


A single piece of CSS formatting information, such as text alignment, is referred to as a style The term cascading refers to the ability for Web pages to use CSS information from more than one source

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CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CONTINUED)

CSS properties:

CSS styles are created with two parts separated by a colon The property refers to a specific CSS style The value assigned to it determines the styles visual characteristics Together, a CSS property and the value assigned to it are referred to as a declaration or style declaration

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CASCADING STYLE SHEETS (CONTINUED)

Inline Styles

Allow you to add style information to a single element in a document


Create styles that apply to the entire document

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Internal Style Sheets

P { color : blue }
selector property value

External Style Sheets

A separate text document containing style declarations that are used by multiple documents on a Web site

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THE CONTENT-TYPE <META> ELEMENT

Create a content-type <meta> element to specify a content type that the document uses
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The <meta> element provides information about the information in a Web page The <meta> element is nested within the <head> section of the Web page The three primary attributes in the <meta> element are: name, content, and http-equiv

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VALIDATING WEB PAGES


A validating parser is a program that checks whether an XHTML document is well-formed and conforms to a specific DTD Validation verifies that your XHTML document is well formed and that the elements in your document are correctly written Validation can help you spot errors in your code XHTML validating services can be found online

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UNDERSTANDING WEB DEVELOPMENT


Web development, or Web programming, refers to the design of software applications for a Web site The Webmaster is responsible for:

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The day-to-day maintenance of a Web site Monitoring Web site traffic and ensuring that the Web sites hardware and software are running properly Knowledge of Web page design, authoring, and development

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CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE

Server (back end):


A database from which a client requests information Fulfills a request for information by managing the request or serving the requested information to the client Responsible for data storage and management

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A system consisting of a client and a server is known as a two-tier system

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CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE (CONTINUED)

Client (front end):

Presents an interface to the user Gathers information from the user, submits it to a server, then receives, formats, and presents the results returned from the server

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CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE (CONTINUED)

A three-tier, or multi-tier, client/server system consists of three distinct pieces:


Client tier, or user interface tier, is the Web browser Processing tier, or middle tier, handles the interaction between the Web browser client and the data storage tier

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Performs necessary processing or calculations based on the request from the client tier Handles the return of any information to the client tier

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CLIENT/SERVER ARCHITECTURE (CONTINUED)


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Figure 1-16 The design of a three-tier client/server system


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JAVASCRIPT AND CLIENT-SIDE SCRIPTING

JavaScript is:

A client-side scripting language that allows Web page authors to develop interactive Web pages and sites Used in most Web browsers including Firefox and Internet Explorer

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Client-side scripting is a language that runs on a local browser (on the client tier) instead of on a Web server (on the processing tier)

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JAVASCRIPT AND CLIENT-SIDE SCRIPTING (CONTINUED)

JavaScript allows you to:


Turn static Web pages into applications such as games or calculators Change the contents of a Web page after a browser has rendered it Create visual effects such as animation Control the Web browser window itself

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SERVER-SIDE SCRIPTING AND PHP


Server-side scripting refers to a scripting language that is executed from a Web server Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a server-side scripting language that is used to develop interactive Web sites

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Is easy to learn Includes object-oriented programming capabilities Supports many types of databases (MySQL, Oracle, Sybase, ODBC-compliant)

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SERVER-SIDE SCRIPTING AND PHP (CONTINUED)

PHP (continued):

PHP is an open source programming language


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Open source refers to software where source code can be freely used and modified

Cant access or manipulate a Web browser like JavaScript Exists and executes solely on a Web server, where it performs various types of processing or accesses databases

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SERVER-SIDE SCRIPTING AND PHP (CONTINUED)


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General rule: Use client-side scripting to handle user interface processing and light processing, such as validation; use server-side scripting for intensive calculations and data storage

Figure 1-17 How a Web server processes a PHP script

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SUMMARY
In 1990 and 1991,Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a large collection of communication protocols used on the Internet A Document Type Definition (DTD) defines the elements and attributes that can be used in a document

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SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are a standard set by the W3C for managing the design and formatting of Web pages in a Web browser A system that consists of a client and a server is known as a two-tier system A three-tier client/server system consists of the client tier, the processing tier, and the data storage tier

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SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
JavaScript is a client-side scripting language that allows Web page authors to develop interactive Web pages and sites Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a server-side scripting language that is used for developing interactive Web sites Open source refers to software for which the source code can be freely used and modified

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