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Power Steering System In Automobiles

Presented by

Vishal V. Chitare (1DB07ME425) chitarevishal@gmail.com Don Bosco Institute of Tecnology. Bangalore.

Power Steering
Introduction. History. General Circuit . Component In Power Steering. Types of HMPS. Future of Power Steering. Advantages and Disadvantages. Conclusion.

Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which allow for a car or other vehicle to follow a course determined by its driver.

History of Hydro-mechanical Power Steering (HMPS)

Hydro-mechanical power steering was the first type to be used on agricultural tractors in the early 1950s. Suitable for small to medium tractors where power steering can be an option to manual steering. Once the size of the tractor becomes too big for manual steering, hydro-mechanical steering is usually not cost effective.

General Circuit
Oil Reservoir
Must be large enough to hold more than all of the oil for the system. Should be capable of dissipating heat in oil.

Hydraulic Lines

Flexible hoses due to the steering components movements.

General Circuit
Oil Filter

Preferably installed in the return line. A 10-micron or smaller filter is recommended. The breather or vent in the reservoir. A 3-micron filter is recommended.

Air Breather Filter

Components in Power Steering

Steering gears

Rotary valve


Components in Power Steering

Power Steering Pump
Usually a vane-type pump or similar. Driven by the engine.

Power Cylinder
Double-acting differential cylinder. Steering response to left and right turns is slightly different. Hardly noticeable.

HMPS Type 1
The integral valve and actuator coupled to steering linkage.

Easiest to adapt to an existing mechanical steering layout. Only two hoses are neede

HMPS Type 2
Steering column mounted control valve with separate, remote actuator coupled to a linkage member.

Creates a highly congested area with all of the hoses. Four Hoses are needed: supply, return and a pair to the actuator. Creates noise, heat and vibration

HMPS Type 3
Control Valve and actuator separately mounted in the steering linkage.

Keeps the area around the steering wheel from becoming too congested. Four hoses are required.

HMPS Type 4
The control valve and the actuator are mounted on the steering column, the actuator drives the pitman arm by rack and pinion or by crank arm means.

Most sophisticated design Requires little or no steering linkage modification. Requires larger space envelope than other types.

Vane Type of Pump


Split Gears

It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels.
It provides a gear reduction, making it easier to turn the wheels.

Steering Gear Box

Steering gears are enclosed in a casing known as steering gear box ( as shown in Fig.)

Recirculating-ball Steering
The first part is a block of metal with a threaded hole in it.

Works similar to a bolt that sticks into the hole in the block.

These are used in havy

duty comurcial vehicles.

Power Rack-and-pinion

The Future of Steering - Drive by Wire

Asthemajorityoftodayshydraulicpower steering systems are designed to have the steering pump running constantly, pumping fluid around the system, it wastes valuable horsepower, which translates into wasted efficiency and therefore fuel.
One concept is the "steer-by-wire" or "drive-by-wire" system. These system would completely eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering, replacing it with a purely electronic control system.

Preventing the wheels from transferring the load to the steering column

Reducing the drivers fatigue Low input torque and continuous steering function Oil output directly proportional to the steering speed


Design is compications and increased in cost.

Fluid leakage.

By studing all these we can conclude that the power stering is nesessory for the modern cars.
Now a days we can see almost all cars having a power steering. It provides good handling to the driver, gives better comfert, and make him less fatigue.

Power Steering

Thank you