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System Planning

System planning means

  • - treating the system as a whole

  • - Choosing the parts in the system so that they give

the required technical performance and its economically

justification

Planning gives idea about What facilities & systems should be provided When& where they should be provided Our effort is to make the system economical

and not only one particular part of the system such as generation transmission and distribution

Its also necessary to consider the stability and reliability of the system

Planning of electrification schemes Planner should ensure Adequate substation capacity Adequate feeder capacity Adequate service Minimum cost Inputs Future needs (load forecasting)

Time to fulfill these needs with defined priorities in the master plan (Priority is given to certain loads, these loads will not be curtailed for short period during expansion.)

Components of Planning Process

STEPS INVOLVED IN PLANNING

PROCESS

Feasibility studies are carried out to identify, evaluate and finalize the best plan

Define the problemFind the alternativesEvaluate the alternativesSelect the best one Find the optimum plan having minimum cost Prepare project reports & charts (action plan/PERT charts for each activity/work) Set dates for milestones Financial & economic appraisal Get final approval Start implementation after selecting best plan

5

PLANNING ACTION

New plans

No Undesirable deviation from plans

 
   

PLANNING

PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING,

IMPLEMENTATION

 

MONITORING,

OF PLANS

OF PLANS COMPARING PLANS

COMPARING PLANS

 

WITH RESULTS

Undesirable

deviation

 

CORRECTIVE

 

ACTIONS

Monitoring is important otherwise plan may not be successfully implemented.

Distribution System Planning

Objectives- to assure that growing demand

for electricity in

terms of increasing growth rates and high load

densities can be satisfied in an optimum way by which are both technically adequate and reasonably economical.

(additional distribution system)

Important(i) its close proximity to ultimate customers (ii) its high investment cost

Distribution system planners

Determine load magnitude & its geographical location

Distribution substation

placed & sized in such a way as to serve the load at maximum cost effectiveness

by minimizing feeder losses & construction costs while considering the constraints of service reliability Distribution system loads determine the size, location of substn routing & capacity of associated transmission lines

Basic principles in Distribution System

Planning

It is more economical to transport power at a high voltage

Electricity travels as per Kirchoff’s current & voltage laws following least resistance paths Power must be delivered in relatively small quantities at low voltage Expect voltage drop from source point to end location Power loss-----cost Equipment & labour--- cost of implementation Operation & maintenance----service cost

Future growth-----for survival (Provision must be given)

Nominal rated system voltage is the most efficient voltage for equipment operation. A rise above this

voltage tends to reduce the power factor factor of

equipment.

Electricity marketWholesale, select retail, bilateral contracts will cut-down the cost of supply if adequate power surplus and grid links are available

Distribution system planning starts at customer level

demand, type, Lf & other customer load characteristicstype of distribution system required

they are grouped for service from secondary lines connected to distribution transformers that step down

primary voltage

distribution transformer loads are then combined to determine the load on primary distribution system

1 0 distribution loads are combined to determine the demand on 1 0 distribution substation

Factors affecting system planning

Demand for ever increasing power capacity Higher distribution voltage More automation Greater control sophistication

Constraints Scarcity of available land Ecological consideration Limitation on fuel choices Production charges

Planning problem

Attempt to minimize the cost of sub transmission , substations, feeders, etc as well as cost of losses

LOAD FORECASTING SUBSTATION EXPANSION SUBSTATION SITE SELECTION OTHER FACTORS