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Minimum Systems and the PIC 16F84A

Chapter Two

Dr. Gheith Abandah

Outline
Review of Memory Technologies The PIC 16 Series PIC 16F84A The PIC 16F84A Memory The Oscillator Instruction Cycle Power-up and Reset
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Review of Memory Technologies


Read Only Memory (ROM) Random Access Memory (RAM): Read/Write Static RAM (SRAM): Each cell is a simple flip-flop of six transistors, CMOS, volatile Programmable ROM (PROM): Each cell is one transistor, MOS, non-volatile, plastic package. Erasable PROM (EPROM): Each cell is one transistor, MOS, non-volatile, erasable with ultraviolet light, ceramic package with quartz window.
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Review of Memory Technologies cont.


Electrically EPROM (EEPROM): Each cell is one transistor with additional transistors for programming, MOS, non-volatile, erasable electrically (takes time), suffers from wear. Flash Memory: Each cell is one transistor, MOS, nonvolatile, erasable electrically (takes time) in blocks, suffers from wear, popular.

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The PIC 16 Series


Device 16F84A Pins 18 Clock Memory Features 1 8-bit timer 1 5-bit port 1 8-bit port Extended supply voltage range 4 MHz 20 MHz 1 K ROM 68 B RAM 64 B EEPROM

16LF84A 16F84A-04

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The PIC 16 Series


Device Pins Clock Memory Features

16F873A

28

20 MHz 4 K ROM 192 B RAM 128 B EEPROM

3 parallel ports, 3 counter/timers, 2 capture/compare/PWM, 2 serial, 5 10-bit ADC, 2 comparators


5 parallel ports, 3 counter/timers, 2 capture/compare/PWM, 2 serial, 8 10-bit ADC, 2 comparators
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16F874A

40

20 MHz 4 K ROM 192 B RAM 128 B EEPROM

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The PIC 16 Series


Device Pins Clock Memory Features

16F876A

28

20 MHz 8 K ROM 368 B RAM 256 B EEPROM

3 parallel ports, 3 counter/timers, 2 capture/compare/PWM, 2 serial, 5 10-bit ADC, 2 comparators


5 parallel ports, 3 counter/timers, 2 capture/compare/PWM, 2 serial, 8 10-bit ADC, 2 comparators
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16F877A

40

20 MHz 8 K ROM 368 B RAM 256 B EEPROM

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PIC 16F84A

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PIC 16F84A Architecture

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The 16F84A Status Register


C: Carry/Borrow DC: Digit Carry/Borrow Z: Zero PD: Power Down TO: Time Out RP0: Register Bank Select RP1, IRP: Not implemented
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The 16F84A Memory


Memory Program Data (File Registers) Data (EEPROM) Stack Technology Flash Size 1K x 14 bits Features

SRAM
EEPROM SRAM

68 Bytes
64 Bytes 8 x 13 bits

10,000 erase/write cycles Retains data down to 1.5 V 10,000,000 erase/write cycles

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Program Memory and Stack

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Configuration Word

Allows the user to define certain configurable features of the microcontroller, at the time of program download.
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Data memory and Special Function Registers


FSR: File Select Register for indirect addressing. EEADR: EEPROM Address EEDATA: EEPROM Data EECON1: Control; RD, WREN, WR, EEIF EECON2: 55H to AAH
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The Oscillator
It is necessary to provide the clock signal. The clock is a continuously running fixed frequency logic square wave. The overall speed of the microcontroller operation is entirely dependent on this clock frequency. Higher frequency -> Higher Performance and higher power consumption.
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Instruction Cycle
The main oscillator signal is divided by 4 to produce the instruction cycle time.

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Pipelining
All PIC microcontrollers implement pipelining. Pipelining fails when one instruction changes the contents of the Program Counter.

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Power-up and Reset


At power-up, the Program Counter is forced to zero and the SFRs are reset so that peripherals are initially in a safe and disabled state. There is also a master clear input MCLR.

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Summary
The PIC 16 Series is a diverse and effective family of microcontrollers. The 16F84A architecture is representative of all 16 Series microcontrollers, with Harvard structure, pipelining and a RISC instruction set. The PIC 16F84A has a limited set of peripherals, chosen for small and low-cost applications. It is thus a smaller member of the family, with features that are a subset of any of the larger ones. The 16F84A uses three distinct memory technologies for its different memory areas. A particular type of memory location is the Special Function Register, which acts as the link between the CPU and the peripherals. Reset mechanisms ensure that the CPU starts running when the appropriate operating conditions have been met, and can be used to restart the CPU in case of program failure.
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