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Contents:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Introduction Objective CM-Techniques CM-Methods Conclusions

Preventive maintenance 1. Action is taken before needed 2. Replacement carried out unnecessarily 3. Reduces catastrophic failures 4. Doesnt guard against unexpected deteriotion

Condition monitoring is used in two distinct ways 1.non-condition maintenance/predictive 2. Permanent monitoring

Objectives :-1. Increase average time between overhaul 2. Decrease the likelihood of sudden unexpected breakdown between overhauls 3. Avoid unnecessary replacement of perfectly good machine components. 4. Decrease duration of overhaul. 5. Safety.

Condition monitoring technique:-Two types of non-intrusive CM techniques 1. Continuous instrument mounted permanently machine specific 2.Periodic

CM-methods 1. Vibration monitoring 2. SPM 3. Thermography 4. Wear debris 5. Dissolved gas analysis 6. Acoustic based 7. Noise level monitoring 8. Motor current analysis

Infrared thermography Temperature is most frequently measured variable. Heated object emits electromagnetic & infrared component(wavelength:0.5-20 micron) Measures temperature through graphical images Range is -40 to 20000 C

Applications 1. OH transmission components, bus duct and generator transformers. 2. Piping, bearings, hi-energy valves, CHP 3. Electronic cards (C&I)

Advantages:1. Performed through camera type of light, handy and portable instrument called thermo vision camera. 2. Does not require any physical contact(0.5 Km) 3. Pinpoint of fault 4. Accuracy 10 C 5. Wide range

SPM Direct measure of actual condition of rolling element bearings. Measurement with SPM method gives an indirect measure of impact velocity.

Lube oil ferrography for Wear-particle analysis

Ferrography is a method of analyzing wear particle for 1. Composition 2. Concentration 3. Size distribution 4. Shape of metal particles Types;1.Analytical 2. Direct reading It can provide accurate indication of incipient faults

Ferro-magnetic material Sand Friction polymers Non-Ferro gram metals Carbon Solid lubricants Oxides Organic materials Bi-chromatic microscope

Ferrography is an efficient means of monitoring the condition of lubricated equipment and can help maintenance personal to avoid unnecessary inspection and maintenance.

Ferrography technique can detect particle undetected by other analysis

TG, BFPs, FD, ID &PA fans, APHs, Mills and other equipments employing gear and sliding bearings.


The most important transformer fault gases are H2, CO,CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 The primary causes of gas generation are corona sparking hot spots arcing general over heating

A general rule on thermodynamic consideration is that the degree of chemical unsaturation of gases formed is related to the energy density of fault

Gas chromatograph is used

IEC599: ratio analysis of hydrogen carbon IEEE standard(57.104-1991): TDCG level Duvals triangle method


Science of sounds that includes generation ,transmission& effects. 2Hz to mega Hz------leakage Tube pipe valve leakage Corona Pump cavitation & partial discharge

BTLD system To detect the tube leak operators have to monitor makeup rate, furnace pressure fluctions and listen noise during boiler operation. Features 1-5 KHz sound detection preamplifiers from screen out background noise

Advantages 1. Damage to adjacent tubes are reduced 2. Improve plant availability 3. Maintenance &replacement cost is reduced 4. Plant shutdown at convenient time 5. Increase personal safety

Ramagundam ---U4 Unchahar---U3&4 VSTPP---U7&8

Valve leak detection High energy valves can cause significant loss in efficiency and generation Measured on sonic(100-20KHz) ultra sonic(20-250KHz) Quantification of leakage flow

Detection of partial discharge based on ACOUSTIC emission

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