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Steam Circulation System

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Introduction
HARSH SRIVASTAVA DY. SUPDT.(OPERATION,STG III) BE ( MECH.).BIET,JHANSI(UP) ET- 98 (22nd BATCH)

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Presentation Plan
Steam circuit diagram Super Heater De-superheater /Attemperator Re-heater IBR Super Critical Boiler

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500MW WATER AND STEAM CIRCUIT

DRUM

CC Pump

Bank II

Bank I

FROM BFP DISCHARGE


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Economizer
4

M.S

C.R.H

H. R. H

FROM F.R.S BOTTOM RNG HDR& Z-PANEL 1 PASS W.W O/L HDRS
ST

1 PASS W.W
ST

ROOF I/L HEADER 2nd PASS LOWER C-HDRS LTSH O/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER R.H.HEADER ECONOMISER

2ND PASS UPPER C-HDR LTSH I/L HEADER D.P.I/L HEADER

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S.H. HEADER 2
ND

PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR

Types of Super Heaters


Pendant type Horizontal type Radiant Superheater Convection Superheater Combined Superheater

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SUPER HEATER
WATER IS HEATED TO RAISE STEAM TO HIGHER TEMPERATURE

ARRANGED IN 3 STAGES

LTSH

LOCATED ABOVE ECONAMISER

RADIANT PENDENT TYPE (DIV PANEL) ABOVE FURNACE

CONVECTIVE FINAL SUPER HEATER ABUVE FURNACE IN CONV PATH

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Super heaters
Super heater heats the high-pressure steam from its saturation temperature to a higher specified temperature.

Super heaters are often divided into more than one stage.

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Transfer of Energy

Hot Flue Gas

Thermal Structure SH

Steam

Convection & Radiation HT Drop in Enthalpy of Flue Gas

Convection HT Rise in Enthalpy of Steam

Mechanism of Heat Transfer Source/Supply


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Thermal Structure
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Sink /Demand
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Mechanism of Heat Transfer :


Rate of heat transfer from hot gas to cold steam is proportional to: Surface area of heat transfer Mean Temperature difference between Hot Gas and Cold Steam. Thot gas,in Tcold steam,out Thot gas,out Tcold steam,in

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Tcold steam,out

Thot gas,in

Thot gas,out Tcold steam,in

Thot gas,in

Thot gas,out Tcold steam,out Tcold steam,in

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Platen Superheater
Platen Superheater : Flat panels of tubes located in the upper part of the furnace, where the gas temperature is high. The tubes of the platen SH receive very high radiation as well as a heavy dust burden. Mechanism of HT : High Radiation & Low convection Thermal Structure:

No. of platens No. of tubes in a platen Dia of a tube Length of a tube

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Geometry of Thermal Structure : Platen SH


The outer diameter of platen SH is in the range of 32 42 mm. The platens are usually widely spaced, S1 = 500 900 mm. The tubes within a platen are closely spaced, S2/d = 1.1. The number of parallel tubes in a platen is in the range of 15 35. Design Constraints: Max. allowable steam flow rates.

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Convective Superheater (Pendant)


Convective super heaters are vertical type (Pendant ) or horizontal types. The Pendant SH is always arranged in the horizontal crossover duct. Pendant SH tubes are widely spaced due to high temperature and ash is soft. Transverse pitch : S1/d > 4.5 Longitudinal pitch : S2/d > 3.5. The outside tube diameter : 32 51mm Tube thickness : 3 7mm

S1 S2

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Convective Superheater (Horizontal)


The horizontal SH are located in the back pass. The tubes are arranged in the in-line configuration. The outer diameter of the tube is 32 51 mm. The tube thickness of the tube is 3 7 mm. The transverse pitch : S1/d = 2 3. The longitudinal pitch :S2/d = 1.6 2.5. The tubes are arranged in multiple parallel sets. The desired velocity depends on the type of SH and operating steam pressures. The outside tube diameter : 32 51mm Tube thickness : 3 7mm

S2
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S1
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MS TO HPT DRUM

HRH TO IPT ECONOMISER

PLATEN SH1

PRI. SH ECONOMISER
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CRH FROM HPT

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Superheater steam path of 500 MW


Steam drum-SH connecting tube-Radiant roof inlet header-First pass roof front-rear-radiant roof outlet header-SH SCW inlet header side-back pass side wall tube-backpass bottom headers-backpass front and rear-backpass screen-backpass roof-backpaas SH & Eco supports-SH/Eco support headers-LTSH support tubes-SH rear roof tubes-SH SC rear wall tubes-LTSH inlet header-LTSH Banks- LTSH outlet headers-SH /DESH link- SH/DESH-division panelDivision panel outlet header- Pendant assemblyoutlet header
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Superheater Temperature Control


Basically the control of temperature is to protect the superheater by preventing the metal temperatures reaching a dangerously high level reducing mechanical strength and leading to failure. Water flowing through a tube conducts heat away much more effectively than steam due to its higher specific heat capacity. This means that tubes carrying water have a metal temperature much closer to the fluid passing through it. For superheat temperatures alloys of chrome molybdenum steels are used (upto 560oC), difficulties in welding means that there use is restricted to only within the highest temperature zone and a transition piece fitted to connect to remaining mild steel tubing. Superheat temperature control is therefore fitted to ensure superheat temperature does not exceed design limits.
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Locating the desuperheater

The preferred location of desuperheater, especially for temperature above 450 deg C is between sections of superheater. The steam is first passed through a primary superheater where it is raised to intermediate temperature. It is then passed through the desuperheater and its temperature reduction is controlled so that, after continuing through the secondary or final stage of the superheater, the required constant conditions are maintained at the outlet.

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Reheater
Purpose: RE-HEAT THE STEAM FROM HP TURBINE TO 540 DEG COMPOSED OF THREE SECTIONS RADIANT WALL REHEATER ARRANGED IN FRONT & SIDE WATER WALLS REAR PENDANT SECTION ARRANGED ABOVE GOOSE NECK FRONT SECTION ARRANGED BETWEEN UPER HEATER PLATEN & REAR WATER WALL HANGER TUBES
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Reheater

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Procedure to Determine Optimum Reheat Pressure


Calculate the efficiency of Rankine cycle, Rankine. Calculate mean effective temperature of heat addition, Tm,in using Tc
Rankine = Eq .Carnot = 1
Tm ,in

Find out pressure corresponding to Tm,in and entropy at HP turbine inlet. Add reheating at this pressure and calculate efficiency of the Reheat Cycle. Repeat above steps for few iterations.
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Arrangement and Construction


The arrangement and construction of a reheater is similar to that of a super-heater. In large modern boiler plant, the reheat sections are mixed equally with super-heater sections.

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Reheater

The pressure drop inside re-heater tubes has an important adverse effect on the efficiency of turbine. Pressure drop through the re-heater should be kept as low as possible. The tube diameter : 42 60mm. The design is similar to convective super-heaters. PMI Revision 00 May 24, 2012 Heat Transfer Coefficient : 90 110 W/m2 K. Overall

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Safety Valves
Device attached to a boiler for automatically relieving the pressure of steam before it becomes great enough to cause bursting. The common spring-loaded type is held closed by a spring designed to open the valve when the internal pressure reaches a point in excess of the calculated safe load of the boiler. Safety valves are installed on boilers according to strict safety norms and IBR recommendation
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Safety Valve Settings of a Typical 200 MW Boiler


Locacation Set Pressure (Kg/sq cm 175.8 179.3 181.1 Reliving Capacity T/Hr 177.1 180.6 182.5 154.0

Drum

Super Heater Re-heater inlet

163.3 45.0 45.5 46.3

Re-heater outlet
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Indian Boiler Regulations


History Scope (cover regulations on):

Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Boiler And Super-Heater Tubes Boiler Tubes Subject To External Pressure The Working Pressure To Be Allowed On Various Parts Of Boilers Welded And Seamless Forged Drums For Water Tube Boilers And Super Heaters Requisite Mountings, Fittings and Auxiliaries
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Indian Boiler Regulations (Continued)


Boiler And Super Heater Tubes, Headers And Other Pressure Parts Tubes Steam-Pipes And Fittings Registration Of Boilers And Inspection Of Boilers Safety Of Persons Inside Boilers Qualification Tests For Welders Engaged In Welding Of Boilers Feed Water For Boiler
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WHY SUPERCRITICAL PRESSURE


Increasing the pressure will mean increase in saturation temperature at which steam evaporates thus increasing the average temperature of heat addition.

A Boiler operating at a pressure above critical point is called SUPERCRITICAL BOILER A point where boiling water and dry saturated lines meet so that associated latent heat is zero, this point is called Critical Point.

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CRITICAL CONDITION
Definition CRITICAL is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance beyond which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase. The critical pressure & temperature for water are Pressure = 225.56 Kg / cm2 Temperature = 374.15 C

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T S DIAGRAM
OUTPUT INCREASE
)0 C
D Basic Rankine Cycle

Dr yS u at

at er

d te ra

li n

St

Bo i

m ea

( e u a ep m T r t r e

240c A 0

E F

-273
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KJ / Kg K

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TEMP

568C 540C
2 cm / Kg

600 500 400 300 200 100


6 25

SUPER CRITICAL BOILER CYCLE WITH SH, RH & Regeneration of SIPAT 3 x 660 MW
Steam flow Steam temp Steam Pres RH pre RH Temp Feed water Temp :2225 T/Hr : 540 c : 256 kg/cm2 : 51.6 Kg/cm2 : 568c : 291c

0
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ENTROPY

SUPERCRITICAL BOILER
Supercritical pressure boiler has no drum and heat absorbing surface being, in effect, one continuous tube, hence called once

through Supercritical pressure boilers.

The water in boiler is pressurized by Boiler Feed Pump, sensible heat is added in feed heaters, economizer and furnace tubes, until water attains saturation temperature and flashes instantaneously to dry saturated steam and super heating commences.

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Pressure Parts Material


Material Oxidation Criteria,

Section Economizer Tube


Evaporator Tube/Water Wall

SIPAT SA210C SA213T22 SA213T22 SA213T23, T91 SA213T12, T23, T91 SA213T23, T91, T92

500 MW Plant
SA-210C SA-213T2 SA-213T12 SA-213T22 SA-213T23 454 482 552 593 593 649 649 760

Spiral Vertical Primary

Superheater Tube

Secondary Final

Reheater Tube Separator Header

Primary Final

SA210C, T12, T23 SA213T23, T91 SUPER304H SA302C SA335P91 SA335P91


SA-213T91 SA-T92 SUPER304H

SH outlet RH outlet

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THANK YOU

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